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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   14 number of financial articles: Chi-square = 5.33, df = 1, p < 0.05; the size of financial photos: Chi-square = 909.59, df = 1, p < 0.01). Therefore, all three newspapers published more articles on financial issues in 2002. Financial photos also occupied more space in 2002 than in 2004. The size of financial photos in 2002 was 231 sq. cm; no financial photos were found in the three newspapers in 2004. The difference is also statistically significant (Chi-square = 231, df = 1, p < 0.01). << Insert Table 6 about here >> Based on the data reported above, the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times decreased their amount of coverage and the total size of business and financial news articles and photos from 2002 to 2004. The findings answered RQ2. RQ3 asked whether the “Traditional Big Three” decreased the amount of coverage of religious, military and social eventson their front pages after 2003. Table 7 compares the total size of religious photos. In 2002, religious photographs occupied more space than in 2004 (Chi-square = 224.25, df = 1, p < 0.01). << Insert Table 7 about here >> Table 8 shows that three major newspapers used a total of 1,257.75 sq. cm to cover military issues in articles in 2004. However, in 2002, there was only 265 sq. cm. The increase from 2002 to 2004 is significant (Chi-square = 647.22, df = 1, p < 0.01). The result of military photos is similar to articles. Three local newspapers devoted more space in 2004 (526.25 sq. cm) than in 2002 (338.1 sq. cm) to photographs about the military or national defense. The difference is statistically significant as well (Chi- square = 40.96, df = 1, p < 0.01). << Insert Table 8 about here >> The result in the social events category is very interesting. Table 9 shows that the total size of social events articles (1,741 sq. cm) of the three local newspapers in 2004 is larger than in 2002 (976.5 sq. cm) and the difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 215.07, df = 1, p < 0.01). On the contrary, there is more total space of social events photos in 2002 (996.5 sq. cm) than in 2004 (554.25 sq. cm). The difference between 2002 and 2004 in terms of the total size of social events photos is also significant

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?  
 
14 
number of financial articles: Chi-square = 5.33, df = 1, p < 0.05; the size of financial photos: Chi-square = 
909.59, df = 1, p < 0.01). Therefore, all three newspapers published more articles on financial issues in 
2002. 
Financial photos also occupied more space in 2002 than in 2004. The size of financial photos in 
2002 was 231 sq. cm; no financial photos were found in the three newspapers in 2004. The difference is 
also statistically significant (Chi-square = 231, df = 1, p < 0.01). 
<< Insert Table 6 about here >> 
Based on the data reported above, the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times 
decreased their amount of coverage and the total size of business and financial news articles and photos 
from 2002 to 2004. The findings answered RQ2. 
RQ3 asked whether the “Traditional Big Three” decreased the amount of coverage of religious, 
military and social eventson their front pages after 2003. Table 7 compares the total size of religious 
photos. In 2002, religious photographs occupied more space than in 2004 (Chi-square = 224.25, df = 1, p 
< 0.01). 
<< Insert Table 7 about here >> 
Table 8 shows that three major newspapers used a total of 1,257.75 sq. cm to cover military issues 
in articles in 2004. However, in 2002, there was only 265 sq. cm. The increase from 2002 to 2004 is 
significant (Chi-square = 647.22, df = 1, p < 0.01). The result of military photos is similar to articles. 
Three local newspapers devoted more space in 2004 (526.25 sq. cm) than in 2002 (338.1 sq. cm) to 
photographs about the military or national defense. The difference is statistically significant as well (Chi-
square = 40.96, df = 1, p < 0.01). 
<< Insert Table 8 about here >> 
The result in the social events category is very interesting. Table 9 shows that the total size of 
social events articles (1,741 sq. cm) of the three local newspapers in 2004 is larger than in 2002 (976.5 sq. 
cm) and the difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 215.07, df = 1, p < 0.01). On the contrary, 
there is more total space of social events photos in 2002 (996.5 sq. cm) than in 2004 (554.25 sq. cm). The 
difference between 2002 and 2004 in terms of the total size of social events photos is also significant 


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