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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   16 More space was devoted to natural phenomena articles and photos in 2002. Table 13 shows the total size of natural phenomena articles in 2002 was 216 sq. cm and there was no similar article at all in 2004. The decrease is statistically significant (Chi-square = 216, df = 1, p < 0.01). The total size of natural phenomenon photos in 2002 (548 sq. cm) was bigger than those in 2004 (198 sq. cm) and the decrease is also statistically significant (Chi-square = 164.21, df = 1, p < 0.01). << Insert Table 13 about here >> Based on the findings reported above, the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times increased their coverage of crimes and natural disasters from 2002 to 2004, but decreased their coverage of accidents and natural phenomena. These findings provided answer to RQ4. RQ5 asked have the “Big Three” increased their amount of coverage of entertainment, celebrities’ scandals and sports on their front pages. The figures in Table 14 show that the three newspapers increased the total size of sports articles from 2002 (0 sq. cm) to 2004 (558 sq. cm) (Chi-square = 558, df = 1, p < 0.01). << Insert Table 14 about here >> Table 15 shows that there is a significant increase from 2002 to 2004 in the number of entertainment photos (Chi-square = 4, df = 1, p < 0.05). Four entertainment photos were found in 2004 and no photo was found in 2002. In terms of the total size of entertainment photos, the three local newspapers devoted zero sq. cm in 2002 and 1,007.75 sq. cm in 2004. The difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 1,007.75, df = 1, p < .001). << Insert Table 15 about here >> Table 16 summarizes the coverage of celebrity scandals in 2002 and 2004. In 2002, there were 807 sq. cm devoted to news articles regarding celebrities’ scandals. However, the same topic occupied much more space in 2004 (1,041.25 sq. cm). The difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 29.69, df = 1, p < 0.01). The same result was found in the total size of photos of celebrity scandals. The three newspapers provided more photo coverage in 2004 (584.5 sq. cm) than in 2002 (505sq. cm) and the difference is also significant (Chi-square = 5.8, df = 1, p < 0.05). << Insert Table 16 about here >>

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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More space was devoted to natural phenomena articles and photos in 2002. Table 13 shows the 
total size of natural phenomena articles in 2002 was 216 sq. cm and there was no similar article at all in 
2004. The decrease is statistically significant (Chi-square = 216, df = 1, p < 0.01). The total size of natural 
phenomenon photos in 2002 (548 sq. cm) was bigger than those in 2004 (198 sq. cm) and the decrease is 
also statistically significant (Chi-square = 164.21, df = 1, p < 0.01). 
<< Insert Table 13 about here >> 
Based on the findings reported above, the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times 
increased their coverage of crimes and natural disasters from 2002 to 2004, but decreased their coverage 
of accidents and natural phenomena. These findings provided answer to RQ4. 
RQ5 asked have the “Big Three” increased their amount of coverage of entertainment, celebrities’ 
scandals and sports on their front pages. The figures in Table 14 show that the three newspapers increased 
the total size of sports articles from 2002 (0 sq. cm) to 2004 (558 sq. cm) (Chi-square = 558, df = 1, p < 
<< Insert Table 14 about here >> 
Table 15 shows that there is a significant increase from 2002 to 2004 in the number of 
entertainment photos (Chi-square = 4, df = 1, p < 0.05). Four entertainment photos were found in 2004 
and no photo was found in 2002. In terms of the total size of entertainment photos, the three local 
newspapers devoted zero sq. cm in 2002 and 1,007.75 sq. cm in 2004. The difference is statistically 
significant (Chi-square = 1,007.75, df = 1, p < .001). 
<< Insert Table 15 about here >> 
Table 16 summarizes the coverage of celebrity scandals in 2002 and 2004. In 2002, there were 
807 sq. cm devoted to news articles regarding celebrities’ scandals. However, the same topic occupied 
much more space in 2004 (1,041.25 sq. cm). The difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 29.69, 
df = 1, p < 0.01). The same result was found in the total size of photos of celebrity scandals. The three 
newspapers provided more photo coverage in 2004 (584.5 sq. cm) than in 2002 (505sq. cm) and the 
difference is also significant (Chi-square = 5.8, df = 1, p < 0.05). 
<< Insert Table 16 about here >> 

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