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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   17 The answer to the fifth research question is that the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times all increased their coverage of sports, entertainment and celebrity scandals from 2002 to 2004. These findings answered RQ5. RQ6 asked have “Big Three” increased their amount of coverage of human interest and international events on their front pages. Data in Table 17 show that there was more space of human interest news photos in the three local newspapers in 2004 (1,642 sq. cm) than in 2002 (903.5 sq. cm). The difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 214.25, df = 1, p < 0.01). << Insert Table 17 about here >> On the other hand, in terms of international events, Table 18 shows a decrease in total article sizes from 2002 (2,171.7 sq. cm) to 2004 (777.5 sq. cm). The decrease is statistically significant (Chi-square = 659.09, df = 1, p < 0.0). << Insert Table 18 about here >> This set of findings suggests that the United Daily, the China Times and Liberty Times increased their human interest coverage but decreased their international events coverage between 2002 and 2004. These findings answered RQ6. Furthermore, to investigate the difference of these three leading newspapers between 2002 and 2004, the author broke all news coverage on the front pages on the “Big Three” into two categories: “hard news” and “soft news.” Particularly, the authors classified hard/soft news by clustering politics, religions, businesses, finance, elections, public policies, other political events, international affairs, social events and the military into the “hard news” category. Crimes, sports, accidents, entertainment, celebrity gossip, scandals, natural disasters, natural phenomena and human interest stories, and photographs as “soft news.” Total coverage amount and size in both articles and photos are counted. Table 19 shows the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times all increased the amount of soft news from 2002 to 2004. On the other hand, these three newspapers decreased their amount of hard news between 2002 and 2004. Although three sets of comparison in Table 19 are not statistically significant, the result is still worth reporting. These three newspapers all added more sensational elements and reduced serious content between these two years. Specifically, the total number of hard news articles

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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The answer to the fifth research question is that the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty 
Times all increased their coverage of sports, entertainment and celebrity scandals from 2002 to 2004. 
These findings answered RQ5.  
RQ6 asked have “Big Three” increased their amount of coverage of human interest and 
international events on their front pages. Data in Table 17 show that there was more space of human 
interest news photos in the three local newspapers in 2004 (1,642 sq. cm) than in 2002 (903.5 sq. cm). 
The difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 214.25, df = 1, p < 0.01). 
<< Insert Table 17 about here >> 
On the other hand, in terms of international events, Table 18 shows a decrease in total article sizes 
from 2002 (2,171.7 sq. cm) to 2004 (777.5 sq. cm). The decrease is statistically significant (Chi-square = 
659.09, df = 1, p < 0.0). 
<< Insert Table 18 about here >> 
This set of findings suggests that the United Daily, the China Times and Liberty Times increased 
their human interest coverage but decreased their international events coverage between 2002 and 2004. 
These findings answered RQ6. 
Furthermore, to investigate the difference of these three leading newspapers between 2002 and 
2004, the author broke all news coverage on the front pages on the “Big Three” into two categories: “hard 
news” and “soft news.” Particularly, the authors classified hard/soft news by clustering politics, religions, 
businesses, finance, elections, public policies, other political events, international affairs, social events 
and the military into the “hard news” category. Crimes, sports, accidents, entertainment, celebrity gossip, 
scandals, natural disasters, natural phenomena and human interest stories, and photographs as “soft news.” 
Total coverage amount and size in both articles and photos are counted. 
Table 19 shows the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times all increased the amount 
of soft news from 2002 to 2004. On the other hand, these three newspapers decreased their amount of 
hard news between 2002 and 2004. Although three sets of comparison in Table 19 are not statistically 
significant, the result is still worth reporting. These three newspapers all added more sensational elements 
and reduced serious content between these two years. Specifically, the total number of hard news articles 

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