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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   32 Liu, Y. L. (1997). Multiple TV channels and their audiences. Taipei, Taiwan: Shyr-Ying Publishing Company. Lord, K. R. & Putrevu, S. (2009). Informational and transformational responses to celebrity endorsements. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 31(1), 1-13. McLachlan, S., & Golding, P. (2000). Tabloidization in the British press: A quantitative investigation into changes in British newspapers, 1952-1997. In C. Sparks & J. Tulloch (Eds.), Tabloid tales: Global debates over media standards. (pp.75-89). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. McManus, J. H. (1994). Market-driven journalism: Let the citizen beware? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. McQuail, D. (1992). Media performance: Mass communication and the public interest. London: Sage. Miraldi, R. (2003). The pen is mightier: The muckraking life of Charles Edward Russell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Mitroff, I.I., & Bennis, W. (1989). The unreality industry: The deliberate manufacturing of falsehood and what it is doing to our lives. New York: A Birch Lane Press Book. Nord, L. (2004). Press for democracy? Some notes about newspaper competition and news quality in Sweden. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Ornebring, H. & Jonsson, M. A. (2004). Tabloid journalism and the public sphere: a historical perspective on tabloid journalism. Journalism Studies, 15(3), 283-29. Patterson, T. E. (2000). Doing well and doing good: How soft news and critical journalism are shrinking the news audience and weakening democracy – and what news outlets can do about it. Faculty research working paper series. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Patterson, T. E. (2003). The search for a standard: Markets and media. Political Communication, 20(2), 139-144. Premeaus, S. R. (2009). The attitudes of middle class versus upper class male and female consumers regarding the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers. Journal of Promotion Management, 15, 2–21, Project for Excellence in Journalism (1998, March). Changing definition of news. Retried April 10, 2010, from Republic of China, Government Information Office (n.d.). Republic of China Yearbook 2009, Retried April 13, 2010, from Riffe, D., Lacy, S. & Fico, F. G. (1998). Analyzing Media Messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Schickel, R. (1985). Intimate strangers: The culture of celebrity. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Shyr, H. (2000). The transforming of broadcasting policy: Discover the concepts of Broadcasting Law in Taiwan. Journal of NCCU (National Cheng-Chi University, Taiwan) . Retried April 19, 2010, from Siebert F. S., Peterson T. & Schramm W. (1963). Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility and soviet communist concepts of what the press should be and do. Chicago, IL: Illini Books.

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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Liu, Y. L. (1997). Multiple TV channels and their audiences. Taipei, Taiwan: Shyr-Ying Publishing 
Lord, K. R. & Putrevu, S. (2009)Informational and transformational responses to celebrity 
endorsements. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising31(1), 1-13. 
McLachlan, S., & Golding, P. (2000). Tabloidization in the British press: A quantitative investigation 
into changes in British newspapers, 1952-1997. In C. Sparks & J. Tulloch (Eds.), Tabloid tales: 
Global debates over media standards. 
(pp.75-89). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 
McManus, J. H. (1994). Market-driven journalism: Let the citizen beware? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 
McQuail, D. (1992). Media performance: Mass communication and the public interest. London: Sage. 
Miraldi, R. (2003). The pen is mightier: The muckraking life of Charles Edward Russell. New York: 
Palgrave Macmillan. 
Mitroff, I.I., & Bennis, W. (1989). The unreality industry: The deliberate manufacturing of falsehood 
and what it is doing to our lives. New York: A Birch Lane Press Book. 
Nord, L. (2004). Press for democracy? Some notes about newspaper competition and news quality in 
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International
Association, Chicago, IL.
Ornebring, H. & Jonsson, M. A. (2004). Tabloid journalism and the public sphere: a historical 
perspective on tabloid journalism. Journalism Studies15(3), 283-29. 
Patterson, T. E. (2000). Doing well and doing good: How soft news and critical journalism are 
shrinking the news audience and weakening democracy – and what news outlets can do about it. 
Faculty research working paper series. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of 
Government, Harvard University.  
Patterson, T. E. (2003). The search for a standard: Markets and media. Political Communication20(2), 
Premeaus, S. R. (2009). The attitudes of middle class versus upper class male and female consumers 
regarding the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers. Journal of Promotion Management15, 2–
Project for Excellence in Journalism (1998, March). Changing definition of news. Retried April 10, 
2010, from 
Republic of China, Government Information Office (n.d.). Republic of China Yearbook 2009, Retried 
April 13, 2010, from 
Riffe, D., Lacy, S. & Fico, F. G. (1998). Analyzing Media Messages: Using quantitative content 
analysis in research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 
Schickel, R. (1985). Intimate strangers: The culture of celebrity. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. 
Shyr, H. (2000). The transforming of broadcasting policy: Discover the concepts of Broadcasting Law 
in Taiwan. Journal of NCCU 
(National Cheng-Chi University,
Retried April 19, 2010, 
Siebert F. S., Peterson T. & Schramm W. (1963). Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, 
libertarian, social responsibility and soviet communist concepts of what the press should be 
and do. 
Chicago, IL: Illini Books. 

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