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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   8 study the quality of news by grouping them into two categories: soft and hard. The next few sections will discuss the declining trend of hard news worldwide and its effects. Tabloidization Tabloidization is a common phenomenon in the media industry today. Although its form may vary from media to media, the concept commonly refers to a decrease in hard news and an increase in soft news. Esser (1999) stated that “the revision of traditional newspapers and other media formats driven by reader preferences and commercial requirements. On the macro level, tabloidization can be seen as a social phenomenon both instigating and symbolizing major changes to the constitution of society” (p. 293). Kurtz (1993) used the word “tabloidization” to a decreased journalistic standard among the news media in the United States. He saw an decrease in hard news, such as politics and economics and an increase in soft news, such as crimes, scandals, accidents, other violence and entertainment. Sparks and Tulloch (1999) believed that in-depth news reporting, a serious tone and a refined language are the three major elements of high-quality newspapers. They defined “good” news reporting as being dominated by national and international events, politics, and businesses; with less emphasis on celebrities, entertainment, crime and gossip. the Project for Excellence in Journalism (1998) found that there have been an increasing number of stories on crime, accidents, celebrities, entertainment and scandal in the news. At the same time, there have been fewer politics, government policy, finance, military and international affairs related stories. Tabloidization has been found elsewhere. McLachlan and Golding (2000) documented differences in British newspapers from 1952 to 1997. They found during this period, international, political, and public policy news stories became fewer and fewer while entertainment, scandal, crime, and human- interest articles significantly increased. Besides, more photographs appeared in British newspapers year by year. Some researchers, however, did not agree that “soft news” is totally useless. For instance, Baum (2003) suggested that readers can still learn about serious issues, such as politics or public policy information, from soft news. Ornebring & Jonsson (2004) claimed that all kinds of journalism are respectable, including tabloid journalism. Although tabloid journalism is generally frowned upon, it

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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study the quality of news by grouping them into two categories: soft and hard. The next few sections will 
discuss the declining trend of hard news worldwide and its effects. 
Tabloidization is a common phenomenon in the media industry today. Although its form may 
vary from media to media, the concept commonly refers to a decrease in hard news and an increase in soft 
news. Esser (1999) stated that “the revision of traditional newspapers and other media formats driven by 
reader preferences and commercial requirements. On the macro level, tabloidization can be seen as a 
social phenomenon both instigating and symbolizing major changes to the constitution of society” (p. 
293). Kurtz (1993) used the word “tabloidization” to a decreased journalistic standard among the news 
media in the United States. He saw an decrease in hard news, such as politics and economics and an 
increase in soft news, such as crimes, scandals, accidents, other violence and entertainment.  
Sparks and Tulloch (1999) believed that in-depth news reporting, a serious tone and a refined 
language are the three major elements of high-quality newspapers. They defined “good” news reporting as 
being dominated by national and international events, politics, and businesses; with less emphasis on 
celebrities, entertainment, crime and gossip. the Project for Excellence in Journalism (1998) found that 
there have been an increasing number of stories on crime, accidents, celebrities, entertainment and 
scandal in the news. At the same time, there have been fewer politics, government policy, finance, 
military and international affairs related stories.  
Tabloidization has been found elsewhere. McLachlan and Golding (2000) documented differences 
in British newspapers from 1952 to 1997. They found during this period, international, political, and 
public policy news stories became fewer and fewer while entertainment, scandal, crime, and human-
interest articles significantly increased. Besides, more photographs appeared in British newspapers year 
by year.  
Some researchers, however, did not agree that “soft news” is totally useless. For instance, Baum 
(2003) suggested that readers can still learn about serious issues, such as politics or public policy 
information, from soft news. Ornebring & Jonsson (2004) claimed that all kinds of journalism are 
respectable, including tabloid journalism. Although tabloid journalism is generally frowned upon, it 

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