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The Globalization of Magazines in India: A case study
Unformatted Document Text:  3 Literature review Although internationalization of corporations can be examined from all aspects of management, the focus of this paper is on strategic management and marketing. The fact that media products are cultural products makes them different from consumer durables and non-durables which means that globalization strategies cannot always follow existing models (Hollifield, 2004). Considerable research in global management strategy focuses on the timing and mode of entering new markets, the choice to standardize or customize the marketing mix and the strategic alliances formed to develop a competitive position in new markets (Chan-Olmsted, 2006). The mode of entry into a market is one of the critical decisions a firm makes because this shapes its production and marketing strategy (Johnson & Tellis, 2008). Jung (2004) classified the options available to media firms as export, license, joint venture and wholly-owned subsidiary, with export offering the least control to the firm and a wholly-owned subsidiary the most control. A firm chooses one of these modes of entry (or a combination) when it decides to develop a new geographic market. The choice of entry mode is shaped by a number of factors such as market opportunities, market uncertainties and governmental policies (Luo, 2001). Low control modes are preferred in some situations because they allow the firm to benefit from economies of scale while satisfying bureaucratic requirements when entering a new market. Luo (2001) found that when entering emerging markets, firms tend to choose the joint venture mode when they believe there is a high degree of

Authors: Shrikhande, Seema.
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Literature review 
Although internationalization of corporations can be examined from all aspects of 
management, the focus of this paper is on strategic management and marketing.   The 
fact that media products are cultural products  makes them different from consumer 
durables and non-durables which means that globalization strategies cannot always 
follow existing models (Hollifield, 2004). 
Considerable research in global management strategy focuses on the timing 
and mode of entering new markets, the choice to standardize or customize the 
marketing mix and the strategic alliances formed to develop a competitive position in 
new markets (Chan-Olmsted, 2006).   
The mode of entry into a market is one of the critical decisions a firm makes 
because this shapes its production and marketing strategy (Johnson & Tellis, 2008).   
Jung (2004) classified the options available to media firms as export, license, joint 
venture and wholly-owned subsidiary, with export offering the least control to the 
firm and a wholly-owned subsidiary the most control.   A firm chooses one of these 
modes of entry (or a combination) when it decides to develop a new geographic 
The choice of entry mode is shaped by a number of factors such as market 
opportunities, market uncertainties and governmental policies (Luo, 2001).  Low 
control modes are preferred in some situations because they allow the firm to benefit 
from economies of scale while satisfying bureaucratic requirements when entering a 
new market.  Luo (2001) found that when entering emerging markets, firms tend to 
choose the joint venture mode when they believe there is a high degree of 

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