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Secrets, Spies and Sacrifice: The Black Experience in Toronto During the Civil War

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Abstract:

Toronto was a hotbed of espionage activity during the Civil War. It was also a refuge for deserters from both North and South, and for escapees from Union prison camps. In the drawing rooms of the elegant Queen’s Hotel opposite the train station, Union and Confederate spies hatched their plots. At the same time, mid-19th century Toronto had the largest population of African American refugees of any Underground Railroad-era destination. The vast majority worked in service industries. They would have regularly encountered Southern exiles in Toronto, some of whom they had known in their former lives in Virginia and Kentucky. This paper explores the complex relationships between Civil War-era sojourners in Toronto, and the frican Canadians and former African Americans who called the city home.
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Association:
Name: 96th Annual Convention
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http://www.asalh.org


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p522003_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Frost, Karolyn. "Secrets, Spies and Sacrifice: The Black Experience in Toronto During the Civil War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, <Not Available>. 2014-11-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p522003_index.html>

APA Citation:

Frost, K. S. "Secrets, Spies and Sacrifice: The Black Experience in Toronto During the Civil War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA <Not Available>. 2014-11-25 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p522003_index.html

Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Toronto was a hotbed of espionage activity during the Civil War. It was also a refuge for deserters from both North and South, and for escapees from Union prison camps. In the drawing rooms of the elegant Queen’s Hotel opposite the train station, Union and Confederate spies hatched their plots. At the same time, mid-19th century Toronto had the largest population of African American refugees of any Underground Railroad-era destination. The vast majority worked in service industries. They would have regularly encountered Southern exiles in Toronto, some of whom they had known in their former lives in Virginia and Kentucky. This paper explores the complex relationships between Civil War-era sojourners in Toronto, and the frican Canadians and former African Americans who called the city home.


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Dudes, Let’s Talk about Us: The Black “Community” Construction of Black Intra-Racial Violence in Toronto.


 
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