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Transnational Immigrant Organizations and Development: the Case of Moroccan, Peruvian, Colombian, and Dominican Immigrants in Spain

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Abstract:

Transnational Immigrant Organizations and Development. The case of Moroccan, Peruvian, Colombian and Dominican Immigrants in Spain.


Héctor Cebolla. UNED
Ana María López Sala. CSIC


Throughout the past decade, Spain has witnessed an unprecedented growth of its foreign born population. The economic boom pushed up and consolidated the arrival of foreign workers in the country, its inclusion into Spanish labor market and the rapid transformation of Spanish society in terms of ethnic, national background and religious diversity. What makes Spain a striking case study for scholars interested in migration is the speed at which this transformation took place, the intensity of the Spanish migration transition and, the diversity of the migration currents. In 1999 there were fewer than 750,000 foreign residents in Spain, representing only 1.85% of the population, but by 2011 there were more than 5.7 million immigrants, which constitute 12.2% of the population. The more important communities in terms of volume are immigrants from Morocco, Romania, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia.

Actors from Spanish civil society and immigrant associations have had a remarkable presence in the domain of integration policies. During last decade, all levels of public administration in Spain have systematically used migrant associations as key actors in defining or implementing integration policies and have cited co-development as an important objective of their policies, linked to regulation, and nowadays, to integration. Immigrant association were included in institutions such as the Foro Social de la Inmigración (created in 1994), a consultive body in the process of policy-making, and played an important role in the most comprehensive Integration Plans (Plan de Ciudadanía e Inmigración, 2007; 2011).

Integration policy in Spain considers immigrant participation as a prerequisite for an equal society and social cohesion and concentrates on immigrant associations as the most straightforward and efficient way to achieve these goals (prioritizes, for instance the consolidation of the immigrant association movement and promotes the creation of such organizations, provide training to the leaders and technical assistance and strengthens the role of consultative bodies in which immigrant associations participate). Additionally immigrant’s organizations have been viewed as seminal actors in the development Spanish policies. Development projects form part of state governance strategies, based on a special understanding of the nexus between migration and development and the relevance of immigrants in the development of their countries of origin. Studies of migration and development nexus have focused more on remittances and “social remittances”. However, migrant organizations and their contributions have not been central to the discussion on migration and development until very recently.

The aim of this paper is to explore in the case of Spain the type of involvement and role as agents of development of Moroccan, Colombian, Peruvian and Dominican organizations in their home country. In order to achieve this aim we will examine in this paper the main characteristics of these immigrant organizations and the differences between them, the type of involvement they maintain in their home-country, and the partnerships they have established with the state and institutions in destination and origin countries. This paper explores also the organizational conditionals that explain why immigrant associations in Spain have access to two basic resources required to develop transnational interventions, namely a) access to public funding in the country of residence and b) contacts with authorities in countries of origin.

Using a dataset obtained from a study conducted in the municipality of Madrid, we are able to provide a preliminary account for differences across migrant organizations in these two indicators and to provide insight into migrant organizations and their contribution to development in the migrant´s regions of origin. The study included: 1) inventories of organizations from each one of the four nationalities; 2) face-to-face interviews with leaders of organizations; 3) visits to the countries of origin and interviews with members of these organizations and government officials in Spain and in the countries of origin. Selection of national immigrant’s organizations takes into account several factors: volume of immigrants in Spain, immigration history of these communities, organization history and composition and transnational activities. The study includes some of the most representative organizations and communities in the recent migration history of Spain. The differences between these cases provide a seminal comparative perspective within Spain and at international level (U.S and Europe).

This study has been supported by the Carolina Foundation for the Latin American organizations and it is included in an international network leaded by Alejandro Portes in the framework of the Comparative Immigrant Organization Project (CIOP), Center for Migration and Development (Princeton University).
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Association:
Name: SASE Annual Conference 2012
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http://www.sase.org


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MLA Citation:

Cebolla, Hector. "Transnational Immigrant Organizations and Development: the Case of Moroccan, Peruvian, Colombian, and Dominican Immigrants in Spain" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference 2012, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA, Jun 28, 2012 <Not Available>. 2014-12-12 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p567462_index.html>

APA Citation:

Cebolla, H. , 2012-06-28 "Transnational Immigrant Organizations and Development: the Case of Moroccan, Peruvian, Colombian, and Dominican Immigrants in Spain" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference 2012, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA <Not Available>. 2014-12-12 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p567462_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Transnational Immigrant Organizations and Development. The case of Moroccan, Peruvian, Colombian and Dominican Immigrants in Spain.


Héctor Cebolla. UNED
Ana María López Sala. CSIC


Throughout the past decade, Spain has witnessed an unprecedented growth of its foreign born population. The economic boom pushed up and consolidated the arrival of foreign workers in the country, its inclusion into Spanish labor market and the rapid transformation of Spanish society in terms of ethnic, national background and religious diversity. What makes Spain a striking case study for scholars interested in migration is the speed at which this transformation took place, the intensity of the Spanish migration transition and, the diversity of the migration currents. In 1999 there were fewer than 750,000 foreign residents in Spain, representing only 1.85% of the population, but by 2011 there were more than 5.7 million immigrants, which constitute 12.2% of the population. The more important communities in terms of volume are immigrants from Morocco, Romania, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia.

Actors from Spanish civil society and immigrant associations have had a remarkable presence in the domain of integration policies. During last decade, all levels of public administration in Spain have systematically used migrant associations as key actors in defining or implementing integration policies and have cited co-development as an important objective of their policies, linked to regulation, and nowadays, to integration. Immigrant association were included in institutions such as the Foro Social de la Inmigración (created in 1994), a consultive body in the process of policy-making, and played an important role in the most comprehensive Integration Plans (Plan de Ciudadanía e Inmigración, 2007; 2011).

Integration policy in Spain considers immigrant participation as a prerequisite for an equal society and social cohesion and concentrates on immigrant associations as the most straightforward and efficient way to achieve these goals (prioritizes, for instance the consolidation of the immigrant association movement and promotes the creation of such organizations, provide training to the leaders and technical assistance and strengthens the role of consultative bodies in which immigrant associations participate). Additionally immigrant’s organizations have been viewed as seminal actors in the development Spanish policies. Development projects form part of state governance strategies, based on a special understanding of the nexus between migration and development and the relevance of immigrants in the development of their countries of origin. Studies of migration and development nexus have focused more on remittances and “social remittances”. However, migrant organizations and their contributions have not been central to the discussion on migration and development until very recently.

The aim of this paper is to explore in the case of Spain the type of involvement and role as agents of development of Moroccan, Colombian, Peruvian and Dominican organizations in their home country. In order to achieve this aim we will examine in this paper the main characteristics of these immigrant organizations and the differences between them, the type of involvement they maintain in their home-country, and the partnerships they have established with the state and institutions in destination and origin countries. This paper explores also the organizational conditionals that explain why immigrant associations in Spain have access to two basic resources required to develop transnational interventions, namely a) access to public funding in the country of residence and b) contacts with authorities in countries of origin.

Using a dataset obtained from a study conducted in the municipality of Madrid, we are able to provide a preliminary account for differences across migrant organizations in these two indicators and to provide insight into migrant organizations and their contribution to development in the migrant´s regions of origin. The study included: 1) inventories of organizations from each one of the four nationalities; 2) face-to-face interviews with leaders of organizations; 3) visits to the countries of origin and interviews with members of these organizations and government officials in Spain and in the countries of origin. Selection of national immigrant’s organizations takes into account several factors: volume of immigrants in Spain, immigration history of these communities, organization history and composition and transnational activities. The study includes some of the most representative organizations and communities in the recent migration history of Spain. The differences between these cases provide a seminal comparative perspective within Spain and at international level (U.S and Europe).

This study has been supported by the Carolina Foundation for the Latin American organizations and it is included in an international network leaded by Alejandro Portes in the framework of the Comparative Immigrant Organization Project (CIOP), Center for Migration and Development (Princeton University).


Similar Titles:
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Transnational Immigrant Organizations and Development: the Case of Moroccan, Peruvian, Colombian, and Dominican Immigrants in Spain

Developing a Theory of Agent Preferences at International Organizations: The Case of the Development Banks

Political Voice, Political Silence: Immigrant Organizations and Undocumented Immigrants in the Developed Democracies


 
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