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Opportunity to Learn to Plan Instruction and Teacher Knowledge and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning: A Comparative Study

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Abstract:

One of the issues that has been studied and discussed in mathematics education suggests that student learning outcomes are related to teacher knowledge (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Putnam, Heaton, Prawat, & Remillard, 1992). Other studies suggest that teachers’ beliefs about the nature of teaching mathematics are related to their teaching practices (Thompson, 1992; Stipek, Givvin, Salmon & MacGyvers, 2001). Consistent with this, the kind of teaching advocated by the reform standards requires teachers to be knowledgeable in mathematics and mathematics pedagogy if they are to teach effectively. This suggests that if mathematics learning is to be improved, there is a need to attend to teachers’ knowledge and beliefs for teaching mathematics.
There is a huge variation on teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics across institutions, program types, and countries. Countries also have different selection policies for their teacher preparation programs. For example, Chinese Taipei requires that future teachers have completed one year of university education before joining the teacher preparation program. Singapore, however, requires that future teachers have “special A- level qualification, a polytechnic diploma, or a post-secondary degree” (p.97). In addition, the prior mathematics achievement is a requirement for admission to all teacher preparation programs in Singapore. However, in Botswana, the United States, the Russia Federation, and Chinese Taipei, prior mathematics achievement is a requirement secondary future teachers (Tatto et al, 2012).
This study, therefore, will examine and compare how pre-service elementary teachers are prepared to plan for mathematics instruction and how this learning is associated to their knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics in five countries. Using comparative studies between and within different countries is one important way of informing policy makers and education stakeholders of the factors that may influence teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics so that improvements and adaptations can be made in its existing practices and policies, based on higher achieving countries’ practices and policies, that have been shown to improve students’ learning outcomes in mathematics. Cross-national studies also allow us to compare similarities and the differences which may not otherwise be noticed (Stigler & Hiebert, 2009). However, it should be noted that adaptations can only be made if they make sense in a particular context.
The study will explore the opportunities that pre-service teachers have to learn to: develop materials that reach all learners, build on their learners’ interests and experiences, select meaningful opportunities for learners, use misconceptions to plan for teaching, and the selection of learning materials. Further, the study will examine how these opportunities are related to their knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics in five countries with markedly different scores in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the TEDS-M study.
The study intends to use a structural equation modeling technique to analyze these relationships using the Teacher Education and Development Study in mathematics (TEDS-M) data. Depending on the sampling of the country, the study will use in-country analysis and compare the findings across countries using a 2 level model or a one level model where appropriate. The dependent variables will be mathematics knowledge and the beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning mathematics. The independent variables will be opportunities to learn to plan effective instruction shown above.
The question guiding the study is:
What are the pedagogical practices for planning instruction that (i) develop pre-service teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics effectively (ii) influence their beliefs about the nature of teaching learning mathematics?

References
Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300 -314. doi:10.1177/0022487105285962
Putnam, R., Heaton, R., Prawat, R., & Remillard, J. (1992). Teaching mathematics for understanding: Discussing case studies of four fifth -grade teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 93(2), 213-228.
Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). The Teaching Gap: Best Ideas from the World’s Teachers for Improving Education in the Classroom. Simon and Schuster.
Stipek, D. J., Givvin, K. B., Salmon, J. M., & MacGyvers, V. L. (2001). Teachers’ beliefs and practices related to mathematics instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 213–226. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00052-4
Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Senk, S.L., Ingvarson, L., Rowley, G., Peck, R., Bankov, K., Rodriguez, M., & Reckase, M. (2012). Policy, practice, and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics in 17 countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). Amsterdam: IEA.
Thompson, A. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research in mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 127 - 146). New York: Macmillan.
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Association:
Name: 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
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http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p635856_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Ayieko, Rachel. "Opportunity to Learn to Plan Instruction and Teacher Knowledge and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning: A Comparative Study" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2014-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p635856_index.html>

APA Citation:

Ayieko, R. A. , 2013-03-10 "Opportunity to Learn to Plan Instruction and Teacher Knowledge and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning: A Comparative Study" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA <Not Available>. 2014-12-11 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p635856_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One of the issues that has been studied and discussed in mathematics education suggests that student learning outcomes are related to teacher knowledge (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Putnam, Heaton, Prawat, & Remillard, 1992). Other studies suggest that teachers’ beliefs about the nature of teaching mathematics are related to their teaching practices (Thompson, 1992; Stipek, Givvin, Salmon & MacGyvers, 2001). Consistent with this, the kind of teaching advocated by the reform standards requires teachers to be knowledgeable in mathematics and mathematics pedagogy if they are to teach effectively. This suggests that if mathematics learning is to be improved, there is a need to attend to teachers’ knowledge and beliefs for teaching mathematics.
There is a huge variation on teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics across institutions, program types, and countries. Countries also have different selection policies for their teacher preparation programs. For example, Chinese Taipei requires that future teachers have completed one year of university education before joining the teacher preparation program. Singapore, however, requires that future teachers have “special A- level qualification, a polytechnic diploma, or a post-secondary degree” (p.97). In addition, the prior mathematics achievement is a requirement for admission to all teacher preparation programs in Singapore. However, in Botswana, the United States, the Russia Federation, and Chinese Taipei, prior mathematics achievement is a requirement secondary future teachers (Tatto et al, 2012).
This study, therefore, will examine and compare how pre-service elementary teachers are prepared to plan for mathematics instruction and how this learning is associated to their knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics in five countries. Using comparative studies between and within different countries is one important way of informing policy makers and education stakeholders of the factors that may influence teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics so that improvements and adaptations can be made in its existing practices and policies, based on higher achieving countries’ practices and policies, that have been shown to improve students’ learning outcomes in mathematics. Cross-national studies also allow us to compare similarities and the differences which may not otherwise be noticed (Stigler & Hiebert, 2009). However, it should be noted that adaptations can only be made if they make sense in a particular context.
The study will explore the opportunities that pre-service teachers have to learn to: develop materials that reach all learners, build on their learners’ interests and experiences, select meaningful opportunities for learners, use misconceptions to plan for teaching, and the selection of learning materials. Further, the study will examine how these opportunities are related to their knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics in five countries with markedly different scores in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the TEDS-M study.
The study intends to use a structural equation modeling technique to analyze these relationships using the Teacher Education and Development Study in mathematics (TEDS-M) data. Depending on the sampling of the country, the study will use in-country analysis and compare the findings across countries using a 2 level model or a one level model where appropriate. The dependent variables will be mathematics knowledge and the beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning mathematics. The independent variables will be opportunities to learn to plan effective instruction shown above.
The question guiding the study is:
What are the pedagogical practices for planning instruction that (i) develop pre-service teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics effectively (ii) influence their beliefs about the nature of teaching learning mathematics?

References
Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300 -314. doi:10.1177/0022487105285962
Putnam, R., Heaton, R., Prawat, R., & Remillard, J. (1992). Teaching mathematics for understanding: Discussing case studies of four fifth -grade teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 93(2), 213-228.
Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). The Teaching Gap: Best Ideas from the World’s Teachers for Improving Education in the Classroom. Simon and Schuster.
Stipek, D. J., Givvin, K. B., Salmon, J. M., & MacGyvers, V. L. (2001). Teachers’ beliefs and practices related to mathematics instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 213–226. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00052-4
Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Senk, S.L., Ingvarson, L., Rowley, G., Peck, R., Bankov, K., Rodriguez, M., & Reckase, M. (2012). Policy, practice, and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics in 17 countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). Amsterdam: IEA.
Thompson, A. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research in mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 127 - 146). New York: Macmillan.


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