Citation

Developing Policy and a System for Inclusive Preschool and primary in Colombia: Achivements, challenges and lessons learned after Salamanca’s Declaration

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Abstract:

The purpose of this chapter is describe the Colombian experience referred to inclusive education from preschool to school settings, between 1991 and 2012. It describe the Paradigmatically evolution from Special Education, to integration (1997), going forward to inclusive education (2009) and, now installing Education for Diversity (2011), after Salamanca`s Declaration (1994).
It emphasized in Laws, Policies, Conceptual Framework, Training Programs and achievements. Finally challenges and Lessons Learned are presented.

This Paradigmatically shift has been inspired by Salamanca`s declaration (1994), UNESCO`s conferences and The CPD of United Nations. Also are inspired by Social justice`s Theories of Martha Nussbaum`s work, based on Human Capabilities; the Index of inclusion (Ainscow, Booth 2006); Multiple`s Intelligences theories (Gardner, 1991); and Universal Design for Learning.(Rose, 2009; Moreno, 2011). All these theories helps to build a whole conceptual framework where disability is reemplaced by diverse capabilities.

Colombia is a multicultural country, and in the last decade has experienced a largest displacement movement, due to political conflict, that requires a diversity approach. By the other side, students with disabilities have been included in different moments under different models. So, now the country has different perspectives of inclusion to combine: Displacement, Disabled, Afrocolombian, Indians students, all of them must be under a unique approach. This attempt has been nominated “The differential approach”.

The first Policy under this aspiration is the Zero to Always (CERO A SIEMPRE), National Policy for Children under six years old. This is the most important effort to guarantee that education is for all.

Methods: Multimethods approach, through Public Policy´s analysis, documental strategies and social participation.

Results:

• Inclusion is a process that must be continuously reinvented because each child and family is unique, specially under multicultural context, as the Colombian experience.
• It is critically important to observe each child and listen to and fully involve his or her parents in the planning process in order to help them identify their goals and the services they want and need.
• The Nussbaum´s capabilities approach can help us to estructure inclusive education models, were dignity and equity must be the core concepts, under multicultural perspectives.
• Disabled, disability, and disabilities terms must be eradicated or changed from the Social and Health Sciences in order to facilitate the paradigmatical shift required today.
• Policy plays a fundamental role in transforming attitudes, discourses and practices in Colombia.

The Significance of the study to the field of comparative or international education is high because evidences how Salamanca`s declaration impulse positives changes and transformation that was not possible without this international intervention.
Even the international influence is needed a new athmosphera of international and local dialogue under “glocal” considerations.
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Association:
Name: Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference
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MLA Citation:

Angarita, Marisol. "Developing Policy and a System for Inclusive Preschool and primary in Colombia: Achivements, challenges and lessons learned after Salamanca’s Declaration" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p713146_index.html>

APA Citation:

Angarita, M. M. , 2014-03-10 "Developing Policy and a System for Inclusive Preschool and primary in Colombia: Achivements, challenges and lessons learned after Salamanca’s Declaration" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p713146_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this chapter is describe the Colombian experience referred to inclusive education from preschool to school settings, between 1991 and 2012. It describe the Paradigmatically evolution from Special Education, to integration (1997), going forward to inclusive education (2009) and, now installing Education for Diversity (2011), after Salamanca`s Declaration (1994).
It emphasized in Laws, Policies, Conceptual Framework, Training Programs and achievements. Finally challenges and Lessons Learned are presented.

This Paradigmatically shift has been inspired by Salamanca`s declaration (1994), UNESCO`s conferences and The CPD of United Nations. Also are inspired by Social justice`s Theories of Martha Nussbaum`s work, based on Human Capabilities; the Index of inclusion (Ainscow, Booth 2006); Multiple`s Intelligences theories (Gardner, 1991); and Universal Design for Learning.(Rose, 2009; Moreno, 2011). All these theories helps to build a whole conceptual framework where disability is reemplaced by diverse capabilities.

Colombia is a multicultural country, and in the last decade has experienced a largest displacement movement, due to political conflict, that requires a diversity approach. By the other side, students with disabilities have been included in different moments under different models. So, now the country has different perspectives of inclusion to combine: Displacement, Disabled, Afrocolombian, Indians students, all of them must be under a unique approach. This attempt has been nominated “The differential approach”.

The first Policy under this aspiration is the Zero to Always (CERO A SIEMPRE), National Policy for Children under six years old. This is the most important effort to guarantee that education is for all.

Methods: Multimethods approach, through Public Policy´s analysis, documental strategies and social participation.

Results:

• Inclusion is a process that must be continuously reinvented because each child and family is unique, specially under multicultural context, as the Colombian experience.
• It is critically important to observe each child and listen to and fully involve his or her parents in the planning process in order to help them identify their goals and the services they want and need.
• The Nussbaum´s capabilities approach can help us to estructure inclusive education models, were dignity and equity must be the core concepts, under multicultural perspectives.
• Disabled, disability, and disabilities terms must be eradicated or changed from the Social and Health Sciences in order to facilitate the paradigmatical shift required today.
• Policy plays a fundamental role in transforming attitudes, discourses and practices in Colombia.

The Significance of the study to the field of comparative or international education is high because evidences how Salamanca`s declaration impulse positives changes and transformation that was not possible without this international intervention.
Even the international influence is needed a new athmosphera of international and local dialogue under “glocal” considerations.


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