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Has the Burton Clark’s Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM) stemmed out from Globalization-Driven Reforms (GDRs)?

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Abstract:

The paper will analyze the concept of Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM) that is attributed to Burton Clark, an American Sociologist. The main objectives of the study will be analyzing the underlying philosophy of the Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM), its relationship with globalization –driven reforms (GDRs- Competitiveness-driven reforms, Finance –Driven Reforms), marketization of education and the suitability of EUM to developing and under developing countries. The study is based on the hypothesis that EUM has stemmed out from the globalization –driven reforms (GDRs). We will use the critical discourse analysis (CDA) to explore the underlying relationship between the GDRs and EUM. CDA is considered the most effective methods to analyze the paradox of a policy. The array of studies reveals that protagonists of GDRs used the discourse of globalization to achieve the agenda of GDRs. Globalization is a multidimensional concept. Therefore, theorists lack consensus to offer an agreed definition of globalization. “Globalization is primarily a perceived set of changes, a construction used by state policy makers to inspire support for and suppress opposition to changes because “greater forces” (global competition, responses IMF, or World Bank demands, obligation to regional alliances and so on) leave the nation-state with no choice but to play a set of global rules not of its own making” (Burbules & Torres, 2000).The paradigm of Globalization and GDRs is definitely Neoliberalism. GDRs are catalyst to accomplish the agenda of Neoliberalism. “Globalization-driven reforms”(GDRs) in education commenced to appear in the mid –to late 70s as government began to believe that their stagnating national budgets and rising deficits could not support continued educational expansion. These set of rules are very complicated in their fabric and their underlying philosophy is based on the cuts of public funding and fund raising by the universities themselves. The impacts of globalization –driven reforms (GDRs) trickled down in the form of survival of the fittest for the universities because globalization- driven reforms (competitiveness-driven reforms and finance –driven reforms) basically based on the notion of free market economy. The concept of Entrepreneurial University was first introduced in 1998 by the American Sociologist Burton. R. Clark in his study Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation. Later on, he published other studies to augment his thesis for its subsistence. The first book was based on studies performed in five different universities of Europe. Clark (1998) describes this is as having a strong steering core with acceptance of model of self –made autonomy across the academic departments. University needs to transform and change. GDRs created an environment of uncertainty for universities. GDRs brought the university under stress all across the world. To Burton Clark, the dilemma of uncertainty could be faced if university was financially autonomous. He emphasized on marketization of the university products and university –industry links to achieve financial autonomy. Universities started marketization on national and global level under the influence GDRs notion of free market economy. This EUM has gained popularity in Europe and USA. Several universities of Europe and USA converted themselves into Entrepreneurial universities. We are doubtful that the EUM might be a successful model for the developed nations, but it might not be very successful in the under-developing and developing countries, where, still higher education is highly dependent on the public funding and low per capita income. The flow of students from China and India is an example of serious threat that has been posed by the marketization of the universities. This student flow is one of the sources of earning for entrepreneurial universities of the USA and Europe. The emerging entrepreneurial universities of China, India, Pakistan and other developing countries are facing the problems lack of financial resources due to overflow of students to western entrepreneurial universities. EUM emphasizes on the self-sustainment of the university because of the decrease in public funding and increasing dependence on self-generation. However, it is a pertinent question should public funding be decreased in education? The insufficient financial capacity of the students might pose a problem for university to attain self- reliance which is largely depending on clients (students). Moreover, the students might be deprived of the right of equal opportunity for education. The expected result of the study might be that EUM has stemmed out from the globalization-driven reforms which stressed on the social and economic as well as structural changes in the university. His EUM is basically based on the inner (narrower) perspective and did not concentrate on outer (broader) perspective. EUM ignores the existing ground realities of developed and under developing countries universities.

Author's Keywords:

Entrepreneurial University, Globalization – Driven Reforms (GDRs), Marketization, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA).
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Name: Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference
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MLA Citation:

Wang, Xiaoyang. and Bukhari, Nasir. "Has the Burton Clark’s Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM) stemmed out from Globalization-Driven Reforms (GDRs)?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p716823_index.html>

APA Citation:

Wang, X. and Bukhari, N. H. , 2014-03-10 "Has the Burton Clark’s Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM) stemmed out from Globalization-Driven Reforms (GDRs)?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p716823_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper will analyze the concept of Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM) that is attributed to Burton Clark, an American Sociologist. The main objectives of the study will be analyzing the underlying philosophy of the Entrepreneurial University Model (EUM), its relationship with globalization –driven reforms (GDRs- Competitiveness-driven reforms, Finance –Driven Reforms), marketization of education and the suitability of EUM to developing and under developing countries. The study is based on the hypothesis that EUM has stemmed out from the globalization –driven reforms (GDRs). We will use the critical discourse analysis (CDA) to explore the underlying relationship between the GDRs and EUM. CDA is considered the most effective methods to analyze the paradox of a policy. The array of studies reveals that protagonists of GDRs used the discourse of globalization to achieve the agenda of GDRs. Globalization is a multidimensional concept. Therefore, theorists lack consensus to offer an agreed definition of globalization. “Globalization is primarily a perceived set of changes, a construction used by state policy makers to inspire support for and suppress opposition to changes because “greater forces” (global competition, responses IMF, or World Bank demands, obligation to regional alliances and so on) leave the nation-state with no choice but to play a set of global rules not of its own making” (Burbules & Torres, 2000).The paradigm of Globalization and GDRs is definitely Neoliberalism. GDRs are catalyst to accomplish the agenda of Neoliberalism. “Globalization-driven reforms”(GDRs) in education commenced to appear in the mid –to late 70s as government began to believe that their stagnating national budgets and rising deficits could not support continued educational expansion. These set of rules are very complicated in their fabric and their underlying philosophy is based on the cuts of public funding and fund raising by the universities themselves. The impacts of globalization –driven reforms (GDRs) trickled down in the form of survival of the fittest for the universities because globalization- driven reforms (competitiveness-driven reforms and finance –driven reforms) basically based on the notion of free market economy. The concept of Entrepreneurial University was first introduced in 1998 by the American Sociologist Burton. R. Clark in his study Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation. Later on, he published other studies to augment his thesis for its subsistence. The first book was based on studies performed in five different universities of Europe. Clark (1998) describes this is as having a strong steering core with acceptance of model of self –made autonomy across the academic departments. University needs to transform and change. GDRs created an environment of uncertainty for universities. GDRs brought the university under stress all across the world. To Burton Clark, the dilemma of uncertainty could be faced if university was financially autonomous. He emphasized on marketization of the university products and university –industry links to achieve financial autonomy. Universities started marketization on national and global level under the influence GDRs notion of free market economy. This EUM has gained popularity in Europe and USA. Several universities of Europe and USA converted themselves into Entrepreneurial universities. We are doubtful that the EUM might be a successful model for the developed nations, but it might not be very successful in the under-developing and developing countries, where, still higher education is highly dependent on the public funding and low per capita income. The flow of students from China and India is an example of serious threat that has been posed by the marketization of the universities. This student flow is one of the sources of earning for entrepreneurial universities of the USA and Europe. The emerging entrepreneurial universities of China, India, Pakistan and other developing countries are facing the problems lack of financial resources due to overflow of students to western entrepreneurial universities. EUM emphasizes on the self-sustainment of the university because of the decrease in public funding and increasing dependence on self-generation. However, it is a pertinent question should public funding be decreased in education? The insufficient financial capacity of the students might pose a problem for university to attain self- reliance which is largely depending on clients (students). Moreover, the students might be deprived of the right of equal opportunity for education. The expected result of the study might be that EUM has stemmed out from the globalization-driven reforms which stressed on the social and economic as well as structural changes in the university. His EUM is basically based on the inner (narrower) perspective and did not concentrate on outer (broader) perspective. EUM ignores the existing ground realities of developed and under developing countries universities.


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