Citation

We need to talk: a case study of student teacher relationship quality in the Philippines

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Abstract:

Objectives/Purpose
While the Cordillera Regional Science High School (CRSHS) is the top performing school in in the Cordillera Administrative Region of the Philippines, it still has a low cohort survival rate. The school’s administration wants to serve its students better, but it lacks the data necessary to make sound policy decisions. Qualitative interviews revealed that students, teachers, and administrators worry about the lack of communication between stakeholders, and a lack of engagement and motivation amongst teachers and students. Research shows that these issues all relate to student-teacher relationship quality. Thus, this paper has three aims: (1) to generate a baseline set of data on students and teachers perceptions of their relationships with each other, (2) to identify discrepant aspects of the students’ and teachers’ perceptions of their relationships, (3) and to make suggestions in regards to possible next steps.

Theoretical Framework
Positive student-teacher relationships have been proven to have beneficial effects on student engagement and student motivation (Hughes & Chen, 2011; Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006), which in turn have been associated with gains in achievement (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder, 2004; Hughes, Wu, Kwok, Villarreal, & Johnson, 2011). Pomeroy (1999) believes that the student-teacher relationship is the most salient feature of students’ experiences at school. Therefore, it serves as a good indicator of students’ overall attitudes toward school.

Methodology
Firstly, open-ended, qualitative interviews were conducted with students, teachers, administrators and alumni. The data collected from these interviews was then used to design a teacher survey and a student survey, which measured various aspects of teacher-student relationships. These surveys were formatted to match Pianta’s (2001) student-teacher relationship scale, short form, which has been widely used to look into student-teacher relationship quality. To facilitate understanding, the survey items used language that students, teachers, and administrators used in their interviews. The surveys were then beta tested by a few students and teachers before being more generally distributed to verify that respondents understood the questions, the results were consistent with the previously collected qualitative data, and the surveys weren’t too taxing in terms of time and effort. T-tests were then conducted to compare the mean response of teachers and students to see if the differences were statistically significant.

Results/Conclusions
The survey included 32 items about student-teacher relationships. For 29 of the 32 items, the difference in mean responses of students and teachers were statistically significant. On a 1-5 scale (from 1, definitely does not apply, to 5, definitely applies), the differences between study groups ranged from .534 to 2.026. The largest discrepancies were in response to the statements “I talk with this teacher about my personal problems” (“I talk with my students about their personal problems”), “This teacher is flexible” (“I am flexible”), “This teacher likes talking with me outside of class” (“I like talking with my student outside of class”), and “This teacher understands me” (“I understand my students”). The mean differences were -2.026, -1.553, -1.464, and -1.545, respectively.

Importance
This case study sheds some light on the current state of student-teacher relationships at a school in the Philippines. Current policies at the school focus on addressing the inputs and outputs of students, rather than their relational needs. But given the connection between student-teacher relationship quality and student motivation and engagement, and subsequent effect on student achievement, policies that focus on creating sustained, positive student-teacher relationships could yield more beneficial returns both socially and academically.

References
Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H. (2004). Intergenerational bonding in chool: the behavioral and contextual correlates of student–teacher relationships. Sociology of Education, 77, 60–81.

Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148–162.

Hamre, B.K., & Pianta, R.C. (2006). “Student-Teacher Relationships.” In G.G. Bear, & K.M Minke (Eds.), Children’s Needs III: Development , prevention and intervention (pp. 49-59). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Hughes, J., & Chen, Q. (2011). Reciprocal effects of student–teacher and student–peer relatedness: Effects on academic self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 278-287.

Hughes, J. N., Wu, J.-Y., Kwok, O.-m., Villarreal, V., & Johnson, A. Y. (2011, November 21). Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher–Student Relationship on Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0026339

Pianta, R.C. (2001). Student-teacher relationship scale short form. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Pomeroy, E. (1999). The Teacher-Student Relationship in Secondary School: Insights from Excluded Students. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20(4), 465-482.

Author's Keywords:

Student-Teacher Relationship Quality
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MLA Citation:

Jorge, Jeffrey. "We need to talk: a case study of student teacher relationship quality in the Philippines" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p716865_index.html>

APA Citation:

Jorge, J. , 2014-03-10 "We need to talk: a case study of student teacher relationship quality in the Philippines" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p716865_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objectives/Purpose
While the Cordillera Regional Science High School (CRSHS) is the top performing school in in the Cordillera Administrative Region of the Philippines, it still has a low cohort survival rate. The school’s administration wants to serve its students better, but it lacks the data necessary to make sound policy decisions. Qualitative interviews revealed that students, teachers, and administrators worry about the lack of communication between stakeholders, and a lack of engagement and motivation amongst teachers and students. Research shows that these issues all relate to student-teacher relationship quality. Thus, this paper has three aims: (1) to generate a baseline set of data on students and teachers perceptions of their relationships with each other, (2) to identify discrepant aspects of the students’ and teachers’ perceptions of their relationships, (3) and to make suggestions in regards to possible next steps.

Theoretical Framework
Positive student-teacher relationships have been proven to have beneficial effects on student engagement and student motivation (Hughes & Chen, 2011; Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006), which in turn have been associated with gains in achievement (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder, 2004; Hughes, Wu, Kwok, Villarreal, & Johnson, 2011). Pomeroy (1999) believes that the student-teacher relationship is the most salient feature of students’ experiences at school. Therefore, it serves as a good indicator of students’ overall attitudes toward school.

Methodology
Firstly, open-ended, qualitative interviews were conducted with students, teachers, administrators and alumni. The data collected from these interviews was then used to design a teacher survey and a student survey, which measured various aspects of teacher-student relationships. These surveys were formatted to match Pianta’s (2001) student-teacher relationship scale, short form, which has been widely used to look into student-teacher relationship quality. To facilitate understanding, the survey items used language that students, teachers, and administrators used in their interviews. The surveys were then beta tested by a few students and teachers before being more generally distributed to verify that respondents understood the questions, the results were consistent with the previously collected qualitative data, and the surveys weren’t too taxing in terms of time and effort. T-tests were then conducted to compare the mean response of teachers and students to see if the differences were statistically significant.

Results/Conclusions
The survey included 32 items about student-teacher relationships. For 29 of the 32 items, the difference in mean responses of students and teachers were statistically significant. On a 1-5 scale (from 1, definitely does not apply, to 5, definitely applies), the differences between study groups ranged from .534 to 2.026. The largest discrepancies were in response to the statements “I talk with this teacher about my personal problems” (“I talk with my students about their personal problems”), “This teacher is flexible” (“I am flexible”), “This teacher likes talking with me outside of class” (“I like talking with my student outside of class”), and “This teacher understands me” (“I understand my students”). The mean differences were -2.026, -1.553, -1.464, and -1.545, respectively.

Importance
This case study sheds some light on the current state of student-teacher relationships at a school in the Philippines. Current policies at the school focus on addressing the inputs and outputs of students, rather than their relational needs. But given the connection between student-teacher relationship quality and student motivation and engagement, and subsequent effect on student achievement, policies that focus on creating sustained, positive student-teacher relationships could yield more beneficial returns both socially and academically.

References
Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H. (2004). Intergenerational bonding in chool: the behavioral and contextual correlates of student–teacher relationships. Sociology of Education, 77, 60–81.

Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148–162.

Hamre, B.K., & Pianta, R.C. (2006). “Student-Teacher Relationships.” In G.G. Bear, & K.M Minke (Eds.), Children’s Needs III: Development , prevention and intervention (pp. 49-59). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Hughes, J., & Chen, Q. (2011). Reciprocal effects of student–teacher and student–peer relatedness: Effects on academic self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 278-287.

Hughes, J. N., Wu, J.-Y., Kwok, O.-m., Villarreal, V., & Johnson, A. Y. (2011, November 21). Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher–Student Relationship on Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0026339

Pianta, R.C. (2001). Student-teacher relationship scale short form. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Pomeroy, E. (1999). The Teacher-Student Relationship in Secondary School: Insights from Excluded Students. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20(4), 465-482.


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