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Unequal School Facilities and Inequality in Completion of School Education in India

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Abstract:

This paper explores the effect of school resources on completion of school education in India. Fundamentally, the idea of this paper is that the distribution of school resources matters for educational attainment and discourses in educational research must find new ways to understand how inequality in educational attainment are influenced by unequal provision of school resources. It is possible—at least theoretically—that expansion of school has increased physical proximities and narrowed the effect of family background on the chances of attending schools but it is also possible that unequal provision of school resources has deepened the effect of circumstantial factors on educational attainment. In this background this paper investigates the effect of school resources in elementary schools on the years of schooling completed and participation in higher education.
Theoretical Framework
Maximally maintained inequality is used as the theoretical framework to understand the inequality in educational attainment in India. Maximally maintained inequality (Raftery and Hout 1993) states, broadening educational opportunities can raise educational attainment rates among marginalized section of the society. However according to the MMI these changes not necessarily reduce inequality since educational opportunities are created not just for the less-privileged social classes, but for everyone. The MMI posits that the children of privileged classes do better in school than do those of less privileged class background (Hauser, Tsai, and Sewell 1983), because they are more familiar with school culture (Lareau 1989), In other words MMI states that children from privileged background are better prepared than their counterparts to take the advantage of of new educational opportunities.
In the context of India, children of lower caste background in general lack the cultural capital required to cope with curriculum and are also less prepared to take the advantage of new educational opportunities. The inequality in enrolment rates have gone down with the physical expansion of schooling in India, but the gap in academic achievement and attainment still persist between castes. Therefore, one could argue that the expansion of educational opportunity has not resulted in reducing inequality in educational attainment at large.
Methodology
In this study I employed survey research to investigate research questions. Survey research uses scientific sampling and questionnaire design to measure characteristics of the population with statistical precision. Random sampling technique was employed for the selection of household in the Darbhanga district of state of Bihar, India. Field survey data for 2100 individuals aged between 18-25 years and their parents are used.
Empirical Strategy
Outcome variable and controls for family background are measured at the individual level whereas school resources are measured are the level of schools. The research questions are analyzed using multilevel modeling technique since in hierarchical nature of data some of the assumptions of single level model are not satisfied. Two level model is estimated first, models for student-level outcomes within schools, known as within-school models; and second, models for school-level outcomes—known as between-school models.

Findings
We observe that all slope coefficient to be positive except few. To begin with we observe negative effect of untrained teacher (not significant), PTR and teacher involved in non teaching assignment, though their strength have reduced with the inclusion of household level control variables. We also observe that inclusion of household level control variable has accurately placed the effect of school factors. It is observed from the table that highest class available in school has positive and significant effect on educational attainment. The highest class available in school is an opportunity to attain higher level of educational attainment. Effect of ratio of untrained teacher to total teacher found to be negative on educational attainment. Ratio of graduate and professional teacher to total teacher found to have positive and significant effect on educational attainment. Involvement of teachers in non teaching assignment was found to have negative effect on educational attainment.
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Name: Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference
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MLA Citation:

Jah, Shashiranajan. "Unequal School Facilities and Inequality in Completion of School Education in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p717648_index.html>

APA Citation:

Jah, S. , 2014-03-10 "Unequal School Facilities and Inequality in Completion of School Education in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p717648_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the effect of school resources on completion of school education in India. Fundamentally, the idea of this paper is that the distribution of school resources matters for educational attainment and discourses in educational research must find new ways to understand how inequality in educational attainment are influenced by unequal provision of school resources. It is possible—at least theoretically—that expansion of school has increased physical proximities and narrowed the effect of family background on the chances of attending schools but it is also possible that unequal provision of school resources has deepened the effect of circumstantial factors on educational attainment. In this background this paper investigates the effect of school resources in elementary schools on the years of schooling completed and participation in higher education.
Theoretical Framework
Maximally maintained inequality is used as the theoretical framework to understand the inequality in educational attainment in India. Maximally maintained inequality (Raftery and Hout 1993) states, broadening educational opportunities can raise educational attainment rates among marginalized section of the society. However according to the MMI these changes not necessarily reduce inequality since educational opportunities are created not just for the less-privileged social classes, but for everyone. The MMI posits that the children of privileged classes do better in school than do those of less privileged class background (Hauser, Tsai, and Sewell 1983), because they are more familiar with school culture (Lareau 1989), In other words MMI states that children from privileged background are better prepared than their counterparts to take the advantage of of new educational opportunities.
In the context of India, children of lower caste background in general lack the cultural capital required to cope with curriculum and are also less prepared to take the advantage of new educational opportunities. The inequality in enrolment rates have gone down with the physical expansion of schooling in India, but the gap in academic achievement and attainment still persist between castes. Therefore, one could argue that the expansion of educational opportunity has not resulted in reducing inequality in educational attainment at large.
Methodology
In this study I employed survey research to investigate research questions. Survey research uses scientific sampling and questionnaire design to measure characteristics of the population with statistical precision. Random sampling technique was employed for the selection of household in the Darbhanga district of state of Bihar, India. Field survey data for 2100 individuals aged between 18-25 years and their parents are used.
Empirical Strategy
Outcome variable and controls for family background are measured at the individual level whereas school resources are measured are the level of schools. The research questions are analyzed using multilevel modeling technique since in hierarchical nature of data some of the assumptions of single level model are not satisfied. Two level model is estimated first, models for student-level outcomes within schools, known as within-school models; and second, models for school-level outcomes—known as between-school models.

Findings
We observe that all slope coefficient to be positive except few. To begin with we observe negative effect of untrained teacher (not significant), PTR and teacher involved in non teaching assignment, though their strength have reduced with the inclusion of household level control variables. We also observe that inclusion of household level control variable has accurately placed the effect of school factors. It is observed from the table that highest class available in school has positive and significant effect on educational attainment. The highest class available in school is an opportunity to attain higher level of educational attainment. Effect of ratio of untrained teacher to total teacher found to be negative on educational attainment. Ratio of graduate and professional teacher to total teacher found to have positive and significant effect on educational attainment. Involvement of teachers in non teaching assignment was found to have negative effect on educational attainment.


Similar Titles:
Mediating Educational Inequalities: An Ethnographic Case Study of an English-medium Village School in India

Unequal School Facilities and Inequality in Educational Attainment in India

Segmented Schooling: Inequalities in Primary Education in India

Special schools, the only educational choice: Injustices and inequalities towards children with disabilities in India


 
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