Citation

Macro-level Political Inequality and the Impact of Family Socioeconomic Background on Adolescents’ Civic Outcomes: A Comparative Study of 31 Countries

Abstract | Word Stems | Keywords | Association | Citation | Similar Titles



Abstract:

Since Hyman’s seminal book (1959), "Political Socialization," first conceptualized the field of study, the centrality of family influence in forming the early civic orientations and behaviors of children and adolescents has received considerable attention by political scientists, sociologists and educational researchers (see, for example, Beck and Jennings 1991; Jennings 1991; Connell 1972, Davies 1965, Jaros, Hirsch and Fleron 1968). Traditional understanding of how families influence their children’s civic outcomes has mostly drawn from a learning model—one that explores how families transmit civic lessons, both implicitly and explicitly, to their children. However, a burgeoning body of more recent research focuses on how civic disparities are shaped across generations by accounting for the variations in family background characteristics. The variations in early experiences at home and in schools that adolescents from families of different background differentially encounter are associated with the individual’s tendencies to think and act civically in particular ways. In this study, I consider the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES) and seek to clarify the role of home civic learning environments in mediating the family socioeconomic status’ influence on adolescents’ civic outcomes. Further, I examine how macro-level inequality of political voice shapes the pattern of the intergenerational transfer of social class advantages in the civic realm. Following Verba, Nie and Kim’s (1978) assumption that political inequalities associated with individual motivation and resources are nested “in the pattern of cleavages in societies and in the way in which such cleavages are institutionalized in parties and organizations” (Verba, Nie and Kim 1978, 19), I attempt to broaden the theoretical and empirical scope of political socialization research.

Differences in country-level inequality of political voice by social class may influence the effect of family socioeconomic background on adolescents’ civic outcomes. For example, in countries where only the exercise of political voice is severely stratified along socioeconomic lines, low socioeconomic status (SES) parents might be less civically empowered and engaged than their similarly situated counterparts in countries where every citizen has an equal voice regardless of his or her socioeconomic conditions. In turn, in countries where citizens share relatively equal political voice, low SES parents may not face the same barriers to providing civically rich home environments for their children as do similarly low SES parents in countries where the political voices of those positioned at the bottom of the socioeconomic hierarchy are marginalized. Following this reasoning, then, in some countries, children having parents with less advantaged socioeconomic attainment would show lower levels of civic empowerment and engagement than would their counterparts having parents with advantaged socioeconomic attainment, while the corresponding gap might be only negligible in other countries. As such, by utilizing the data from 2009 International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), this study test whether macro-level political inequality can explain cross-national variations in the effect of family SES on adolescents’ civic outcomes.

My empirical analyses of 31 countries lead to several conclusions. First, although parents’ educational attainment has a marked effect on adolescents’ civic outcomes in all 31 countries, the magnitude of its effect varies across countries. In general, the effects of parental education on adolescents’ civic outcomes tend to be stronger in economically developed countries than in less developed countries. Second, the level of parental education does not necessarily determine the extent to which home environments are civically stimulating in most countries. While home civic learning environments mediate, to some extent, the effect of parental education on adolescents’ civic outcomes, the effect of parental education remains significant in most countries even after home civic learning environments are held constant. Last, but most importantly, in countries where the political voice of those at the lower rungs of the socioeconomic ladder are marginalized, parents with disadvantaged socioeconomic background function as a less effective force in enhancing their children’s civic development than do their similarly situated counterparts in countries where all citizens across the socioeconomic spectrum share relatively equal political voice. The two-level HLM analyses found strong empirical evidence of the systematic association between country-level inequality of political along socioeconomic lines and the magnitude of family socioeconomic influence on adolescents’ civic outcomes. This finding lends support to my argument that the civic advantages that accrue to advantaged socioeconomic families and are passed on to their offspring is not really given at all. Rather, they are socially constructed in the sense that the tendency for high SES families and their children to take greater civic advantages can be counteracted by changing the distribution of socioeconomic advantages, or politics per se.

Author's Keywords:

Political Socialization; Political Inequality of Citizen Voice
Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

Association:
Name: Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference
URL:
http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p718363_index.html
Direct Link:
HTML Code:

MLA Citation:

Kim, Hyungryeol. "Macro-level Political Inequality and the Impact of Family Socioeconomic Background on Adolescents’ Civic Outcomes: A Comparative Study of 31 Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p718363_index.html>

APA Citation:

Kim, H. , 2014-03-10 "Macro-level Political Inequality and the Impact of Family Socioeconomic Background on Adolescents’ Civic Outcomes: A Comparative Study of 31 Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-12-10 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p718363_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since Hyman’s seminal book (1959), "Political Socialization," first conceptualized the field of study, the centrality of family influence in forming the early civic orientations and behaviors of children and adolescents has received considerable attention by political scientists, sociologists and educational researchers (see, for example, Beck and Jennings 1991; Jennings 1991; Connell 1972, Davies 1965, Jaros, Hirsch and Fleron 1968). Traditional understanding of how families influence their children’s civic outcomes has mostly drawn from a learning model—one that explores how families transmit civic lessons, both implicitly and explicitly, to their children. However, a burgeoning body of more recent research focuses on how civic disparities are shaped across generations by accounting for the variations in family background characteristics. The variations in early experiences at home and in schools that adolescents from families of different background differentially encounter are associated with the individual’s tendencies to think and act civically in particular ways. In this study, I consider the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES) and seek to clarify the role of home civic learning environments in mediating the family socioeconomic status’ influence on adolescents’ civic outcomes. Further, I examine how macro-level inequality of political voice shapes the pattern of the intergenerational transfer of social class advantages in the civic realm. Following Verba, Nie and Kim’s (1978) assumption that political inequalities associated with individual motivation and resources are nested “in the pattern of cleavages in societies and in the way in which such cleavages are institutionalized in parties and organizations” (Verba, Nie and Kim 1978, 19), I attempt to broaden the theoretical and empirical scope of political socialization research.

Differences in country-level inequality of political voice by social class may influence the effect of family socioeconomic background on adolescents’ civic outcomes. For example, in countries where only the exercise of political voice is severely stratified along socioeconomic lines, low socioeconomic status (SES) parents might be less civically empowered and engaged than their similarly situated counterparts in countries where every citizen has an equal voice regardless of his or her socioeconomic conditions. In turn, in countries where citizens share relatively equal political voice, low SES parents may not face the same barriers to providing civically rich home environments for their children as do similarly low SES parents in countries where the political voices of those positioned at the bottom of the socioeconomic hierarchy are marginalized. Following this reasoning, then, in some countries, children having parents with less advantaged socioeconomic attainment would show lower levels of civic empowerment and engagement than would their counterparts having parents with advantaged socioeconomic attainment, while the corresponding gap might be only negligible in other countries. As such, by utilizing the data from 2009 International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), this study test whether macro-level political inequality can explain cross-national variations in the effect of family SES on adolescents’ civic outcomes.

My empirical analyses of 31 countries lead to several conclusions. First, although parents’ educational attainment has a marked effect on adolescents’ civic outcomes in all 31 countries, the magnitude of its effect varies across countries. In general, the effects of parental education on adolescents’ civic outcomes tend to be stronger in economically developed countries than in less developed countries. Second, the level of parental education does not necessarily determine the extent to which home environments are civically stimulating in most countries. While home civic learning environments mediate, to some extent, the effect of parental education on adolescents’ civic outcomes, the effect of parental education remains significant in most countries even after home civic learning environments are held constant. Last, but most importantly, in countries where the political voice of those at the lower rungs of the socioeconomic ladder are marginalized, parents with disadvantaged socioeconomic background function as a less effective force in enhancing their children’s civic development than do their similarly situated counterparts in countries where all citizens across the socioeconomic spectrum share relatively equal political voice. The two-level HLM analyses found strong empirical evidence of the systematic association between country-level inequality of political along socioeconomic lines and the magnitude of family socioeconomic influence on adolescents’ civic outcomes. This finding lends support to my argument that the civic advantages that accrue to advantaged socioeconomic families and are passed on to their offspring is not really given at all. Rather, they are socially constructed in the sense that the tendency for high SES families and their children to take greater civic advantages can be counteracted by changing the distribution of socioeconomic advantages, or politics per se.


Similar Titles:
Political participation opportunities, civic knowledge, a democratic school climate, and adolescents’ political participation in the future: A comparative study

Adolescent At-Risk Behaviors: A Multi-Level Analysis of Family, Neighborhood and School Factors Affecting Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

The Impact of School Segregation on the Disparities in Children's Civic Outcomes: A Comparative Study of 28 Countries


 
All Academic, Inc. is your premier source for research and conference management. Visit our website, www.allacademic.com, to see how we can help you today.