Citation

Masculinity and HIV: A Synthesis and Application of Theories of Masculinity for Understanding Men's HIV-risk Behaviors

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Abstract:

Despite its biological origins, HIV/AIDS is largely shaped by social forces. Social constructions of gender norms, and those of masculinity in particularly, are key drivers of the epidemic. While the connection between masculinity and HIV-risk behaviors have been made, there is a need to integrate social science theories of masculinity with empirical research on the mechanisms by which masculinity shapes men’s behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to review the theory, evidence, and mechanisms for how men’s condom use and number of sexual partners are influenced by norms of masculinity to order to identify future directions for HIV-prevention with heterosexual men. Evidence shows that gender ideology and gender role stress are both associated with less condom use. There are three main constructs of masculinity that may limit men’s use of condoms: 1) sexual desire, 2) ability to perform sexually (losing erection/performance), and 3) bodily invulnerability (it is a woman’s concern). Each of these characteristics are associated with masculinity in most societies and men’s desire to demonstrate these characteristics may impede their condom use. Gender ideology is also associated with the number of partners a man has (more traditional ideology, higher number of partners). The relationship between masculinity and having multiple partners can primarily be explained by masculine norms encouraging men to a) have power over other men, b) have power over women, and c) have an active ‘male sex drive’. Future directions for HIV prevention are considered in light of this review.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

men (255), masculin (187), sexual (167), al (164), et (164), gender (132), behavior (95), partner (69), use (69), women (67), sex (62), condom (61), hiv (57), health (55), social (54), role (52), power (50), norm (50), male (49), studi (48), j (46),
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Association:
Name: American Sociological Association Annual Meeting
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http://www.asanet.org


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726680_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Fleming, Paul., DiClemente, Ralph. and Barrington, Clare. "Masculinity and HIV: A Synthesis and Application of Theories of Masculinity for Understanding Men's HIV-risk Behaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 <Not Available>. 2016-06-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726680_index.html>

APA Citation:

Fleming, P. J., DiClemente, R. J. and Barrington, C. , 2014-08-15 "Masculinity and HIV: A Synthesis and Application of Theories of Masculinity for Understanding Men's HIV-risk Behaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2016-06-10 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726680_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite its biological origins, HIV/AIDS is largely shaped by social forces. Social constructions of gender norms, and those of masculinity in particularly, are key drivers of the epidemic. While the connection between masculinity and HIV-risk behaviors have been made, there is a need to integrate social science theories of masculinity with empirical research on the mechanisms by which masculinity shapes men’s behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to review the theory, evidence, and mechanisms for how men’s condom use and number of sexual partners are influenced by norms of masculinity to order to identify future directions for HIV-prevention with heterosexual men. Evidence shows that gender ideology and gender role stress are both associated with less condom use. There are three main constructs of masculinity that may limit men’s use of condoms: 1) sexual desire, 2) ability to perform sexually (losing erection/performance), and 3) bodily invulnerability (it is a woman’s concern). Each of these characteristics are associated with masculinity in most societies and men’s desire to demonstrate these characteristics may impede their condom use. Gender ideology is also associated with the number of partners a man has (more traditional ideology, higher number of partners). The relationship between masculinity and having multiple partners can primarily be explained by masculine norms encouraging men to a) have power over other men, b) have power over women, and c) have an active ‘male sex drive’. Future directions for HIV prevention are considered in light of this review.


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