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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 176 words || 
1. White, Derrick. ""Improve the School": Building a Segregated Athletic Infrastructure during the Depression" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, <Not Available>. 2020-02-18 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: The paper will examine the seeming contradiction of the economic constraints of the Great Depression coinciding with an expansion in athletic infrastructure at FAMU. The paper begins with a description of the initial years of the Orange Blossom Classic (OBC), which became the premier intersectional Black college football game in the country, often determining the Black College National Champion. The OBC represented the three bases of FAMU's athletic infrastructure: funding, players, and coaching. FAMU acquired athletic funding through president J. R. E. Lee's expansive plans for growth and improvement, and because of a state tax on pari-mutuel betting that helped fund athletics. FAMU obtained players because of segregated education and the creation of Florida Interscholastic Athletic Association. FAMU's pioneering coach and athletic director Jubie B. Bragg helped create the high school athletic association as means of recruiting good athletes and students to FAMU. Finally, FAMU improved the quality of coaching across the state through its physical education degree program, and beginning in 1937 its coaching clinic. FAMU's athletic infrastructure was the basis for football program's dynasty.

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