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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 249 words || 
1. Johnson, S. Aisha. "Acres, Mules & A Green Economy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: African Americans refer to the historical Civil War era promises of acres and mules both rhetorically and in terms of real reparations. There are African Americans who have owned farm land and used it as a means of economic empowerment. However, current discussions center around Black land loss. This paper looks at the state of Black farm land ownership and utilization for economic empowerment of the owners, their heirs, the community and institutions including relevance to today’s dialogues about the green economy.
Recruiting and retaining diverse graduate students and faculty in such fields as Agriculture and Natural Resources poses one major challenge--the limited number of diverse undergraduates and faculty in the national pool especially domestic African Americans. A cause of the underrepresentation is the negative perception about agriculture and natural resources that is associated with historical factors such as enslavement, sharecropping, lynching and racism. As a result, farmers have aged and lost their land due not only to centuries of institutionalized racism and economic disadvantages, but also due to heirs who are not willing and/or able to take over their inherited land for reasons such as lack of knowledge about property laws, policies and procedures; lack of production knowledge and skills; and/or lack of interest in being stewards of the land, as well as opting to sell their inherited property for quick access to money. However historically, before subjection to such atrocities, African people were stewards of the land and knew how to manage agriculture and natural resources.

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