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2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 22 pages || Words: 7059 words || 
1. Bonikowski, Bart. "Beyond National Identity: Collective Schemata of the Nation in Thirty-three Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper explores a novel approach to the study of popular nationalism by aggregating and comparing the manner in which survey respondents from 33 countries conceive of their nations. By focusing on the correlation structure of attitudinal measures of nationalism from the International Social Survey Program, rather than simply on the content of individual survey responses, the study explicitly examines the heterogeneity of meaning attached to particular measures by individual respondents. This analytic technique is based on the assumption that the same answer to a survey question can mean two different things to two different respondents and that this difference in meaning can be observed by examining how each respondent answered other questions on the survey. Once the individual response profiles are aggregated to the national level, the cross-national differences are represented graphically using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). The variation in the nationsÂ’ position in MDS space is explained in terms of their political, economic, and demographic attributes, as well as the historical trajectories of their nation- and state-building processes. Finally, the paper offers a four-fold inductive typology of popular nationalism (consolidated, fragmented, contested, and polarized nationalism) based on the relational structure of the national populations' attitudinal profiles, which represents a marked improvement over the ethnic-civic dichotomy that continues to dominate the nationalism literature.

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