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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 212 words || 
1. Kahrl, Andrew. "Black Gated Fences: African American Coastal Communities and the Making of Modern Black Conservatism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, <Not Available>. 2020-02-18 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Concerning matters of race and real estate, the past decade has witnessed an outpouring of scholarship offering new insights about how the rise of suburbia and the decline of cities transformed American culture and the political economy of race. New treatments of federal policies, and how these policies made homeownership synonymous with wealth and opportunity, have remained central to this body of work. The struggle between those advocating for civil rights and those seeking to protect their property rights has also proven critical to highlighting how powerful interests coded and reproduced race and racial inequality through the spatiality of the metropolitan landscape. Property, these works show, stood at the center of modern conservatism, animating concepts of freedom and liberty and crystallizing the threats posed by redistributive liberalism. African American property owners, this paper argues, were agents, and not mere objects, in the formation of political strategies designed to stabilize real estate markets and privatize public space in mid-twentieth century America. With a focus on exclusive black summer communities during an era of rapid coastal development, this paper examines the measures African American property owners employed to preserve the “character” of their communities in opposition to outside development and displacement from above and grassroots activism from below.

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