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2011 - 96th Annual Convention Words: 260 words || 
1. Menyweather-Woods, Larry. "Black Religious Thoughts among Black Chaplains during the Civil War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, Oct 04, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The development of Black Religious Thought in America served as one of the liberating tools of African Americans during the nineteenth century. African Americans had established religious, educational, and social institutions by the time of the Civil War which served as vehicles promoting a double-vision; first, the reality in which they found themselves, i.e., living in a society who considered “Blacks major threat to the future of the Union by their very presence;” and, second, to serve as a buffer to absorb the harsh blows of racism and oppression dealt by the larger society.
Many Sociologists are in agreement of religion’s importance for Blacks serving as Chaplains in the Civil War. The development of Black Religious thought adds to the mystery of the role of faith in Black American Cultural development as well; even though, early twentieth century Black leaders spoke and thought highly of the religious spirit prevailing in Black America, the closer to the 21st century has seen the progress steadily decrease.
This paper examines the nadir period of Black Religious development in America, comparing the influence of the African Sacred Cosmos prior to beginning of the Civil War to enslaved African Sacred Cosmos possessed by Blacks during the Civil War. Second the paper will further examined the definitions and interpretative methods used by Black Religious thought which gave rise to a distinctive religious thought process from their European counterpart. The concepts of evangelical, liberal, moderate and progressive will be defined and explanation of such terms based on the opposing world views will be discussed

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