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2013 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 11736 words || 
1. Voorhees, Steven. "CNN’s Coverage of the 2012 Presidential Debates: Balanced or Liberally Biased?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Hotel, Washington DC, Aug 08, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-24 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Following the 2012 presidential election season, conservatives charged cable news networks CNN and MSNBC as being liberally biased in their news coverage. While MSNBC openly acknowledges its progressive leanings, CNN has maintained a commitment to balanced journalism. This study conducts a comparative rhetorical and semiotic analysis of both networks’ coverage following the three highly watched presidential debates to see if CNN holds to its balanced commitments. Results indicate a wide separation between the two networks.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 8798 words || 
2. Brandenburg, Heinz. "Revisiting the "Liberal Media Bias":A Quantitative Study into Candidate Treatment by theBroadcast Media During the 2004 Presidential Election Campaign" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: Over recent decades, the alleged ‘liberal media bias’ in the U.S. has become the subject of political arguments, punditry, public perception and academic debates. The purpose of this paper is not to prove or disprove the allegation of bias (which remains inherently impossible). Instead, the intention is to add something new and valuable to ongoing academic discourse by providing three crucial innovations in research design. First, our quantitative analysis of media coverage during the 2004 presidential election is unprecedented in its data quality, with regard to both richness and precision of our estimates. Second, the inclusion of campaign data allows relating media coverage to the actual content of the Bush and Kerry campaigns. And third, the U.S. analysis is part of a comparative, cross-country study of election campaigns, which means that we can put our findings about partisan bias in perspective, contrasting it with patterns of media coverage in countries like the UK and Ireland (see Brandenburg 2005, 2006a).
The first part of the paper summarizes how the liberal bias hypothesis developed, within and outside academia, and how it caught the imagination of the American public. Part two outlines the aims, objectives and the scope of the current study, and introduces the method of data collection and coding. Part three presents with preliminary findings, where it should be noted that this is a report from an ongoing process, using a sample of the collected campaign material, and at this stage focussing exclusively on the question of bias in television news coverage. In the final part we draw some necessarily tentative conclusions about the state of campaign coverage in the U.S. during the 2004 campaign, contrasting these findings against similar studies from the UK and Ireland.

2015 - Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology Words: 225 words || 
3. Bilewicz, Michal. "Liberal bias or status bias? Studying psychologists as a social group" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Omni San Diego Hotel, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-24 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: In recent years social and political psychology was severely criticized (e.g. Duarte et al., 2015; Inbar & Lammers, 2012; Haidt at 2011 SPSP): the main argument was that our research is conducted by politically homogeneous community that includes political liberals (people holding progressive beliefs about social issues and supporting welfare-state economy) and lacks conservative voice.

This paper presents a study of social psychologists from the capitalist West (UK, USA) and the post-communist East (Poland, Hungary), showing that liberal bias can be observed only among Western social psychologists, whereas Eastern social psychologists combine progressive social ideologies with conservative freemarket economical views. These views are reflected in research interests in the East and West.

The examples of research topics from Western psychology (ethnic prejudice, climate change denial or system justification) and Eastern psychology (complaining, belief in an unjust world, entitlement attitudes, uncompetitiveness) suggest that researchers worldviews can affect their research interests. Based on the concepts of disciplinary power (Hegarty & Bruckmuller, 2013), distinction (Bourdieu, 1984) and social identity (Tajfel, 1974) we call for a reflection on psychologists research practice and political ideas as resulting from researchers position in the class structure of their societies: being part of upper middle-class in their respective countries (as opposed to lower classes that are conservative and support free market in the West and are more populist and supporting welfare state in the East).

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