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2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 177 words || 
1. Johnstone, Christopher. "Can a “defectologist” support inclusive education? Results and new questions from a study on inclusive education in Macedonia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper reports on a recent study in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). As part of a broader effort to integrate Macedonia into the European Union, Macedonia’s Ministry of Education is examining its educational systems for inclusiveness. One of the fundamental challenges to including students with disabilities into general education schools and classrooms is resistance from a professional class known as “defectologists.” In this study, the role of the defectologist is examined both in replicating models of segregation begun in Macedonia’s communist past and in creating new inclusive systems. Perspectives from a variety of stakeholders are reported, based on interview and survey data collected in Macedonia. Critical questions will be explored, such as: 1) How can a professional class designed to separate persons with disabilities from the general population facilitate inclusion; 2) What is the role of higher education in reshaping the role of defectologists? And 3) Are implicit (or explicit) hegemonic principles linked to the title “defectologist”? At the end of this discussion, final recommendations from the study will be shared with audience members.

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