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2014 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 6664 words || 
1. Aguilera, Michael. and Hudson, Kenneth. "Discouraged Workers in the United States: Is There a Gender Difference?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, Oregon, Mar 27, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-23 <>
Publication Type: Formal research paper presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: My research focuses on the unemployment of women in the United States, testing four hypotheses related to human capital, local unemployment conditions, and familial obligations. Because women face wage discrimination within the labor market, they might be more likely than men to become discouraged and stop seeking employment entirely. Although this study employs the traditional definition of the unemployed as job seekers who are without work, it also delves further into this classification by recognizing the marginally attached workers who desire employment and are available for employment but have stopped seeking employment due to discouragement over poor employment chances or for other reasons such as to continue education or focus on the family. In order to study unemployment, four hypotheses are developed and tested using the American Community Survey from 2008. Multinomial regression is used to test the proposed hypotheses derived from the existing literature on employment. The study determines whether the traditional theoretical models of unemployment apply to men and women equally and compares women’s behavior within the labor market to men’s, as they may differ in their responses to a poor economy and familial considerations. For men, local unemployment is positively related with their unemployment. However, for women local unemployment is negatively associated with unemployment of marginally attached workers.

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