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2003 - International Communication Association Pages: 36 pages || Words: 11399 words || 
1. Agne, Robert. "Framing Problems in Crisis Negotiation: Reframing in the Case of Waco" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Outside Waco, Texas, on April 19th, 1993, a 51-day standoff between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and David Koresh and the Branch Davidians concluded with a fire that killed more than 75 people inside the Davidian compound. Despite the fact that the FBI negotiators talked on the telephone with Koresh or his spokesperson almost every day, the negotiators were unable to bring the standoff to a peaceful end. A frustrating yet persistent aspect of the FBI negotiations was the DavidiansÂ’ talk about the Bible and their religious beliefs. In this study, I analyze several exchanges between Koresh and various negotiators. The analysis shows how different reframing practices reveal the interactional troubles the negotiators faced in dealing with the incompatibility of their frame for the situation with the DavidiansÂ’ religious one. These practices, I argue, shed new light on the generic advice currently provided for crisis negotiators.

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