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2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 211 words || 
1. DelCollo, Ashley., Russell, Brenda., Khondaker, Mahfuzul., Rice, Kennon. and Woytko, Nicole. "Gang Membership and Racial Factors that Affect Sense of Safety in Community and School" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 03, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined whether gang membership and racial differences among middle and high school students affected sense of safety in school and neighborhood. Students (N = 1982) completed a survey and were collapsed into one of four categories (i.e., Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Other). Results found 14% of the sample reported being a member of a gang. Chi square analyses found a significant relationship among race and gang membership that showed Caucasians represented 8.5% of self-reported gang members compared to 19% African American, 17.5% other, and 14% Hispanic. Two factorial ANOVAs were computed using race and gang membership (yes/no) as the independent variables and sense of safety in school and neighborhood as the dependent variables. There was a significant main effect for gang membership for feeling safe in the neighborhood. Those who belonged to a gang felt significantly less safe in their neighborhoods than those never in a gang. Similarly, results showed a main effect for gang membership and race for school safety. Students who belonged to a gang were significantly less safe in school than those not in a gang. A main effect for race also showed that Blacks felt significantly less safe at school compared to other, whites, and Hispanics. Implications and limitations are addressed.

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