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2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 242 words || 
1. Tirtowalujo, Isabella. "Ki Hajar Dewantara: Education for liberation and rootedness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper analyzes excerpts from the writings of Ki Hajar Dewantara (1889-1959), the most prominent historical education thinker in Indonesia, on his conception of a national education for native Indonesians in the context of resisting colonization by the Dutch and the imposition of Western education. The excerpts are taken from three essays published within the twenty years prior to the independence of Indonesia in 1945. Dewantara problematizes the Western-style education implemented in the native schools for its role in perpetuating a crisis of cultural-identity, which for him is at the root of the major problems causing a societal crisis.
Using the framework of education for liberation and rootedness, he proposes that education may be the process through which individuals can understand a humanizing way of living in the midst of the diverse others: being rooted in their religiously and culturally derived identities, yet able to welcome the mixing of cultures. This analysis provides a unique historical perspective of a developing country’s struggle against globalization and colonization, and an education system shaped by non-indigenous—international—perspectives, values and ideals. Particularly relevant to our contemporary context is Dewantara’s way of highlighting the misconception of “equality with others,” when it is understood as being “similar to the others,”—in his case, the Western others. Dewantara’s thoughts lend themselves useful in guiding the discussion on the current trends toward the internationalization of schools in Indonesia, and the ongoing effort of the implementation of imported curricula and adaptation to international standards.

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