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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 222 words || 
1. Harris, Carmen. "Living at Home: Rural Afro-South Carolinians and the Quest for Economic and Social Justice" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-18 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The proposed paper examines the impact of African American extension work in South Carolina on the lives of African American farm families. The magnitude of the effect of extension programs on the lives of small farmers, regardless of race, is a matter of historical debate. While it is certainly accurate that small farmers received far less than their share of attention and financial resources from federal and state extension programs than those who were engaged in agribusiness, the enforced segregation of African American extension work necessitated a limited programmatic agenda. These programs encouraged a greater focus ameliorating the extreme poverty sharecroppers and small farmers faced through such programs as “Live-at-Home.” “Negro” extension agents and their clients forged bonds of community cooperation that helped improve their lives both economically and socially. Extension programs provided secular opportunities for development of community leadership. Lessons in leadership were invaluable as rural South Carolinians found the courage to resist white supremacy and demand their civil rights. Indeed, as the civil rights struggle emerged in South Carolina, many rural Afro-South Carolinians had developed the capacity to resist white economic pressure by collaborating with traditional civil rights organizations and independent black institutions in the state. The objective of this paper is to highlight the institutional means by which the drive for economic empowerment influenced social change in South Carolina.

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