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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 356 words || 
1. Frear, Yvonne. "Making the Invisible, Visible: Juanita Craft and Grassroots Activism in the Civil Rights Movement in Dallas, Texas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, <Not Available>. 2020-02-18 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Women, especially African American women in the United States, actively participated in the civil rights movement. Unfortunately, their experiences, participation, and activism have been minimized in most cases, especially in the Gulf South states, like Louisiana and Texas. African American, female, grassroots activists in these areas worked extremely hard to battle years of entrenched racism and discrimination, but much like their counterparts in Deep South states their work has been neglected in the scholarship because of the men that dominated the Movement in their areas. After all, the modern African American civil rights movement is generally recognized as a male-dominated movement with the key leader of the movement identified as Martin Luther King, Jr., not his wife Coretta. Unfortunately, many individuals have not readily accepted that African American women in the Gulf South states were more than silent followers and that numerous African women contributed to the movement by serving in roles that were comparable to that of African American male leaders, but untraditional. The idea that many women went unnoticed as active participants in the fight for civil rights appears to be the norm in many earlier studies.
This presentation seeks to explain roles and strategies of Juanita Craft, a non-traditional activist in the civil rights movement in Dallas, Texas, who served as a NAACP branch organizer, and later as the Youth Council advisor for the Dallas Branch during the civil rights movement. The presentation will also inform the audience of Craft’s participation in the civil movement in Dallas, Texas and how she worked to establish and maintain a racially equitable society. It will highlight her involvement with the political oligarchy and conservative African American male leaders who sought to reduce her growing power, all while she was serving as an agent and intermediary in larger and more prominent protests, Supreme Court rulings, and events. It will also seeks to explain that during the civil rights movement African American women in Texas attempted to improve their social and educational political position through economic activism as they became key trailblazers in the fight for equal rights throughout the state.

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