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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 3883 words || 
1. Smallwood, Andrew. "Malcolm X’s Leadership Ideology and the Politics of Economic Empowerment in the 1960s: A Critical Reassessment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the face of adversity African Americans have used different approaches to alleviate
the negative social conditions during various periods in history. Leading the way were prominent African Americans who received advanced education despite various difficulties in this process. These individuals served as advocates for voicing the concerns, hopes, and frustrations for many African Americans in the early 20th century to a wider audience. A key mechanism for improving opportunities for African Americans has been through educational advancement. In this paper, I will examine how Malcolm X (1925-1965) had written about and/or advanced the concept of economic advancement for African Americans. The purpose of this paper is to uncover the unique contributions of Malcom X as African-American leader who developed an ideology and praxis using his leadership and to educate and inform African Americans.The social, political, and economic forces contributing to poverty and overall marginality of under-represented people helped to shape the need for adults to seek education outside of a formal setting to effectively address their community needs. Issues have generally centered around human rights and a need for adults to either function in their jobs adequately or to be accepted as members of society.

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