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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 157 words || 
1. Goddard, Richlyn. "Mme. Sara Spencer Washington's Apex Enterprises" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-18 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: During her lifetime, Madam Washington (1889-1953) was known as a philanthropist and those close called her the "Genius with a Midas touch" because she built a financial empire on beauty basics and attained international stature in the business world. Among her ventures were the Apex News and Hair Co, Apex Publishing Co. with "Apex News" for beauticians and agents, Apex Laboratories, Apex Drug Co. and Apex Beauty Colleges. A biographic sketch of Mme. Washington's migration from Virginia to Atlantic City by 1911, where she established her headquarters, will be the focus of this paper. Apex Beauty Products Co. was the largest and most significant of New Jersey's black-owned businesses and by the mid-1930s it had emerged as one of the nation's leading black manufacturing companies. This presentation will be based on Goddard's published biographies in the African American National Biography (2008) and the Encyclopedia ob Black Women in America, 2nd edition (2005).

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