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2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 209 words || 
1. Stupi, Elizabeth. and Stults, Brian. "Neighborhood Disadvantage, Violence, and the Moderating Influence of Grandmothers and Old Heads" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 04, 2009 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Theoretical and empirical literature on the social ecology of crime has argued that dramatic changes in the U.S. post-industrial urban economy combined with discrimination and persistently high levels of segregation have led to the concentration of disadvantage in urban areas, and particularly in poor, inner-city, African American communities. According to Anderson (1999), this context fosters alienation from mainstream society and the development of an oppositional culture whose norms support the widespread use of violence. Indeed, prior research has found that neighborhood structural characteristics predict adoption of the street code, which in turn increases the likelihood of engaging in violence and falling victim to it. However, less research has examined the community characteristics expected to reduce adoption of the street code and associated levels of violence; specifically, the presence of adult male role models and grandmothers. A small number of studies have examined the relationship between community levels of violence and the presence of male role models, but only for large units such as cities or counties. This study uses data for neighborhoods in Cleveland, Ohio, to examine the influence of structural characteristics on community levels of violence, and evaluates whether those effects are moderated by the presence of male role models and grandparents.

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