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2003 - International Communication Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 7425 words || 
1. Koerner, Ascan. "Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-11-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Several researchers (i.e., Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, & Gelfand,1995; Triandis & Gelfand, 1998) have suggested that the cultural variables of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism correspond to Fiske’s (1991, 1992, 1993) relational models of collectivism, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. This claim was tested in a cross-cultural comparison between American and Singaporean respondents’ use of relational models in two different relationships: friendships and acquaintanceships. Results provide evidence for an association of horizontal collectivism with communal sharing, vertical collectivism with authority ranking, horizontal individualism with equality matching, and vertical individualism with market pricing. In addition, results showed that for Americans, there are no differences between friendships and acquaintances in regard to relational model use, whereas for Singaporeans, these two relationships are qualitatively very different. Implications of these findings for the study of interpersonal and intercultural communication are discussed.

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