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2017 - 102nd Annual Meeting and Conference of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History Words: 183 words || 
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1. Ashford, Evan. "Shaping the Color Line in Mississippi: An Analysis of Acts that Defied the Racial Code" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 102nd Annual Meeting and Conference of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza Hotel, Cincinnati, OH, <Not Available>. 2019-03-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1286260_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: The era of Jim Crow established a system of caste that replaced the old institution of slavery. The purpose of Jim Crow was to reinforce the concept of white supremacy and black inferiority which had been eroded during the Civil War and the era of Reconstruction. Throughout the process of permanent racial separation circumstances arose in which the racial code between blacks and whites was violated that resulted in social exchanges that contradicted one of the main purposes of Jim Crow. Edward Ayers’ explained in his book, The Promise of a New South, that the color line had not been firmly established during the decade of the 1880s and segregation as a term to describe the separation of race came into being during the early part of the twentieth century. C. Vann Woodward described the color line in Origins of The New South, 1877-1914, as a non-concrete entity which was not observed by either the white or black race. This paper looks at situations in which violations to the racial code and social order occurred in rural Mississippi from 1870 to 1890


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