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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 141 words || 
1. Berger, Dan. "Slaves, Shadows and Self-Determination: Black Nationalism, the Republic of New Afrika and the 1970s Prison Movement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: The RNA provided an ideological, if not organizational, umbrella for national liberation and anti-prison movements to emerge as joint forces in the 1970s. Even more than the incarceration of RNA members due to state repression, the influx of New Afrikan ideology in prisons owed to the RNA’s depiction of black people as a colony internal to the United States. That position gave people who were literally imprisoned a framework to explain their place in society, and it placed questions of slavery and incarceration as intimately connected to defining blackness. The prison’s invisibility fueled a nationalist critique of its role as an institution of slavery. This paper examines these connections through three New Afrikan prison struggles of the late 1970s: the creation of a prisoner holiday, Black August; the production of prisoner media; and the campaigns for U.N. intervention against U.S. imprisonment.

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