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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 238 words || 
1. Bracey, Bryan. "Sporting Blackness: The Social and Economic Implications of Sport at HBCUs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, <Not Available>. 2020-02-18 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: During the early part of the 20th century, sport in the United States began to take hold as a useful supplement to the emergent capitalistic economy. While very different from the commercially branded version we see in the mainstream today, sport was laying the seeds for its position as a chief vehicle for the embodiment of Americanness. Simultaneous to this evolution was the birth of sport on black college campuses.

Black colleges incorporating sport into the student experience were tasked with the daunting objective of finding ways to define the value of sporting practices in a way which their uses would better prepare students to engage the outside world. Furthermore, as sport gained its foothold as a chief element of American culture, African Americans had to resolve, in a Du Boisian double consciousness sense, their relationship with the development of a new venue for perceived social mobility.

This paper scrutinizes the debates and discussions concerning the role of sport at historically black colleges during the early 20th century. In particular, how does sport contribute to the production of a form of blackness that, not only, speaks to the cultural significance of sport to African Americans but also enables a means for acceptance into dominant society? As such, was sport and does sport continue to be, an essential component of the commercial viability of blackness and/or a mechanism for black economic advancement?

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