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2006 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 250 words || 
1. Hardej, Diane., Scaramell, Helen., Hussey, Eileen. and Trombetta, Louis. "Utilization of ZDF Rats to Demonstrate Type II Diabetes Mellitis to Students in Pharmacy Laboratories" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, Jul 05, 2006 <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Type II diabetes mellitus, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is an insidious and protracted major health concern in the United States. Risk factors include age, obesity, genetic predisposition and physical inactivity. The purpose of this instructional laboratory was to give Pharm D. students practical experience with animal handling, blood drawing and the use of the glucometer to understand the pathophysiologic principles in NIDDM. These principles were demonstrated in the laboratory by using obese and lean ZDF rats, a genetic strain predisposed to NIDDM. Upon housing, obese female ZDF rats were fed a high fat diet for 4-6 weeks, which induces NIDDM in these animals. Animals were fasted for 16 hours before lab and given a bolus dose of glucose (2ml/kg -60% glucose solution) by gavage. Blood taken from locally anesthetized tails of dosed rats were tested for glucose at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes using commercially available glucometers. Students plotted blood glucose levels of each rat over 120 minutes and observed higher glucose levels in obese ZDF rats at all time points, when compared to lean controls. Glucose levels of lean rats returned to baseline by 120 minutes. Glucose levels of obese rats failed to return to pre-glucose administration levels in this time frame. Some preparation and expertise in handling of animals was required, but as a visual demonstration of NIDDM, this laboratory proved to be an excellent teaching tool for our students to explain this major health issue.

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