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2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 486 words || 
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1. Kloos, Alexandra. "Educating mothers of HIV-exposed children (0-5) for improved Early Childhood Development" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1216058_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite an increasing recognition of the importance of early childhood development, over 200 million children in developing countries are unable to fulfill their developmental potential. The majority of the brain’s development happens within the critical early childhood period – the first 1,000 days – yet disadvantaged populations lack the critical access to services or information to help children thrive in the early stages of life. Furthermore, research shows that infants who are HIV-exposed have slower developmental outcomes compared to non-exposed infants (World Health Organization).

To intervene at this important juncture, the Bantwana Initiative of World Education (Bantwana) is implementing an Early Childhood Stimulation (ECS) program in Zimbabwe, a community-based early childhood development intervention in pediatric HIV care and treatment programs. This comprehensive, community-based program aims to improve early childhood development, and HIV retention and adherence outcomes among HIV-exposed and infected children aged 0-5 years. Furthermore, it improves adherence and retention in care for the mothers of these HIV-exposed children, while also improving their economic resilience and teaching them important parenting skills to better nurture their children.

One of the key aspects of the ECS program is educating the mothers on early childhood stimulation skills to support their HIV-exposed children’s development. Taught by a trained ECS facilitator, the program follows a parenting skills curriculum, while the mothers are supported by home visits by community Case Care Workers (CCWs) who follow up on the ECS training. Mothers also receive training on Internal Saving and Lending Schemes to improve their economic resiliency to support their children’s medical needs. The curriculum, developed by Bantwana, includes 12 parenting topics, including motor, social, emotional, cognitive development, communication and language development, health, and nutrition. Mothers are led through toy making workshops and learn skills to stimulate their children to increase developmental outcomes.

The ECS program has reached 2,482 mothers and 2,926 children through 218 ECS playgroup sites across 17 districts of Zimbabwe. Nearly 85% of ECS group members are the primary caregivers of children exposed to HIV who are also HIV+. To evaluate the significance of the ECS parenting curriculum on HIV adherence for mothers and their babies, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and developmental progress of the child, Bantwana is conducting a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) with researchers from the University College London. This RCT includes 563 mother-baby pairs in 22 groups who receive the ECS parenting curriculum, half of which are the intervention arm and half of which are the delayed intervention control arm. Currently in its first year, the RCT will be completed in 2017.

These educational parenting sessions help increase early childhood development outcomes for HIV exposed children, as well as improve retention and adherence on HIV care and treatment for the mother-baby pairs. Together, the increased parenting skills, economic resilience, and HIV awareness aim to improve the future of this particularly-vulnerable group of children, intervening at an essential point in their developmental growth.

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 686 words || 
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2. Giandomenico, Caroline. and Badza, Auxilia. "Educating mothers of HIV-exposed children (0-2) for improved early childhood development" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, Mar 25, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1354746_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite an increasing recognition of the importance of early childhood development, over 200 million children in developing countries are unable to achieve their full developmental potential. The majority of the brain’s development happens within the critical early childhood period – the first 1,000 days – yet disadvantaged populations lack the critical access to services or information to help children thrive in the early stages of life. Furthermore, research shows that infants who are HIV-exposed have slower developmental outcomes compared to non-exposed infants (World Health Organization, 2007).

To intervene at this important juncture in a child’s life, the Bantwana Initiative of World Education (Bantwana) is implementing an Early Childhood Stimulation (ECS) program in Zimbabwe, a community-based early childhood development intervention in pediatric HIV care and treatmentoh wait, it says 0-5
program. The intervention includes three elements: 1) an early childhood stimulation parenting program, 2) an internal savings and lending scheme for caregivers, and 3) case management home visits by conducted by trained community case workers. This comprehensive, community-based program aims to improve early childhood development, and HIV retention and adherence outcomes among HIV-exposed and infected children aged 0-2 years. Furthermore, it improves adherence and retention in care and treatment for the mothers of these HIV-exposed children, while equipping them with important parenting knowledge and skills to better nurture their children.

One of the key aspects of the ECS program is educating the mothers on early childhood stimulation skills to support their HIV-exposed children’s development. Taught by a trained ECS facilitator, the program follows a parenting skills curriculum, while the mothers are supported by home visits by community case workers who follow up on the ECS training and HIV treatment and care. Mothers also receive training on Internal Saving and Lending Schemes (ISALS) to improve their economic resiliency to support their children’s medical needs. The curriculum, developed by Bantwana, includes 12 parenting topics, including motor, social, emotional, cognitive development, communication and language development, health, and nutrition. The content is covered in 18 sessions with groups meeting twice a month over a nine month period. Mothers are led through toy making workshops and learn skills to stimulate their children to increase developmental outcomes.

To evaluate the significance of the ECS parenting curriculum on HIV adherence for mothers and their babies, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and developmental progress of the child, Bantwana, with researchers from the University College London is conducting a Randomized Control Trial (RCT). The RCT includes 574 mother-baby pairs in 22 groups who receive the ECS parenting curriculum, half of which are the intervention arm and half of which are the delayed intervention control arm. For the baseline, all caregiver-child dyads were interviewed with a questionnaire and a development assessment of the child. The assessments conducted reported on income and expenditure, food security, maternal mental health, parental stress, HIV testing, disclosure and treatment history for self and child, self-reported ART adherence, and development of the child. The intervention covers 12 months with an end date of December 2017. At the endline, a similar assessment will be conducted with a follow up questionnaire and full development assessment of the child by a trained nurse.

The primary outcomes of the trial are cognitive development, using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (The Mullen Scales of Early Learning, 1995) and retention of the child in HIV care. Secondary outcomes include HIV infected children’s viral load measurement, ART adherence and retention in both the HIV positive mothers and the HIV infected children, parental stress levels and mental health status of caregivers according to validated scales, household food security status and nutritional status of the children. Currently in its final months, we expect preliminary results will be ready to share in March 2018.

These critical educational parenting sessions help increase early childhood development outcomes for HIV exposed children, as well as improve retention and adherence on HIV care and treatment for the mother-baby pairs. Together, the increased parenting skills, economic resilience, and community case worker follow up aim to improve the future of this particularly-vulnerable group of children, intervening at an essential point in their developmental growth.

2010 - ISME World Conference and Commission Seminars Pages: unavailable || Words: 2703 words || 
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3. Yanjie, Yang., Zhang, Dan. and Ha, Jing. "A Study of Parents’ Attitudes Towards Music Education of Children Aged 0-6 in Beijing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISME World Conference and Commission Seminars, China Conservatory of Music (CC) and Chinese National Convention Centre (CNCC), Beijing, China, Aug 01, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p404036_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The music education attitudes held by parents is one of the most crucial factors which affect children’s involvement in musical activities. For a long time, the musical atmosphere in a family, which is directly linked with parents’ understanding and attitudes to music education and opinions on its aim and significance, has been considered as an influential factor in the development of children’s musical ability. The purpose of the study: To overview the attitudes toward music education held by parents of children aged 0~6 in Beijing. The method: The study makes use of questionnaire and telephone interview to gather the data. 182 parents from 3 kindergartens in Beijing composed the random samples in this study. The synthesis of the content: The study provides a general view about parents’ social backgrounds, their opinions about the significance and the aim of music education. The conclusion of the study and the implications: (1) 54% of the parents believe that music is the most important way to shape children’s characters and help them develop a positive emotion, meanwhile 77.2% of parents think that music has no an apparent significance to children’s school performance. (2) 88.4% of the parents hold that music education is aimed to cultivate children’s good characters, a percentage higher than that of parents who think that music education is designed to develop children’s interest in music or their musical skills; while some parents believe that the main purpose of musical education within families is to facilitate the relationship between parents and kids. (3) The educational background and income level of parents only affect the education conditions they could provide. And there’s little difference in the parent’s attitudes toward music education between parents with varied backgrounds and income levels. Parents’ attitudes toward music education have changed along with the development of China. We can conclude that parents are gradually attaching greater importance to the emotional and character-shaping function of musical education than the musical skill, and have recognized the importance of family musical atmosphere and parents attitudes.
Key words: Beijing; children aged 0-6; parents; attitudes towards music education

2012 - The Law and Society Association Words: 120 words || 
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4. Ciano, Leonardo. "The Computer Network Monitoring Law: Radiation-1, Information-0" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village Resort, Honolulu, HI, Jun 03, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p559553_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since the March 11 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster in Japan, citizens of northern Japan's Tohoku area as well as the surrounding environs, including Tokyo, have struggled to stay informed of nuclear hazards unleashed by the catastrophy. On June 17, the Japanese Diet passed The Computer Network Monitoring Law allowing police to monitor and remove information from the Internet ostensibly in order to protect the public. This paper analyzes the government rationale for implementing the law and the slippery slope on which such legislation rests. It concludes the government's promise to provide accurate information on the dangers of radiation while monitoring the spread of inaccurate data smacks of censorship and constitutes a dangerous attack on freedom of speech in Japan.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 495 words || 
Info
5. Gladstone, Melissa., Maleta, Kenneth. and Phuka, John. "Integrated nutrition, developmental stimulation and health messages for 0-2 year old children in Malawi" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960070_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Introduction:
Global child mortality rates have decreased substantially. Despite this, over 200 million children <5 yrs do not reach their developmental potential worldwide. Strong evidence from controlled studies demonstrates that encouraging stimulation, early communication and nutrition of children improves developmental outcomes. Feasibility of this in African settings has not been tested.

Aims:
We aimed to test feasibility of UNICEF/WHO Care for Child Development (CFCD) programme for health care workers (HCWs) in urban/rural settings in Malawi using the Medical Research Council framework on developing and evaluating complex interventions.

Methods:
This was a mixed methods study. We used qualitative methods to obtain baseline data on attitudes, beliefs, barriers of parent carers (PCs) and HCWs in feeding and stimulation of children. We conducted 18 focus group discussions (FGDs), 20 in depth interviews (IDIs), 6 PAR groups with PCs and 20 IDIs and 4 FGDs with HCWs. We piloted CFCD training with 6 HCWs to conduct both group/individual sessions with 60 carers/children <2 years over 6 months. We observed recruitment rates, timings, quality of sessions and barriers to conducting sessions. We collected baseline/endline data on anthopometry, child development (MDAT), maternal stress (SRQ), family care index (FCI) and maternal child interaction and used independent t tests or chi square for statistical analysis. At endline, we conducted 20 IDIs with PCs and 6 with HCWs to determine acceptability. For all qualitative data, topic guides were adapted iteratively and data was subject to thematic content analysis.

Results:
Baseline qualitative data demonstrated that mothers were critical to target and responsive to needs of children but poverty, lack of resources and time pressures impinge on care. HCWs had no training on child development, conflicting pressures on time and little accountability. HCWs conducted a mean of 2.6 groups (range: 3-10 participants) and 9.5 individual sessions/month, reaching <14% of population < 2 yrs. Reasons for non-attendance included home commitments, lack of incentives and lack of communication. Follow up demonstrated significantly increased availability of household play things (FCI 1 t=-1.67 (p<0.001) and reported interaction with children (FCI3 t = -0.6 (p<0.05)). Anthropometry and child development showed no significant change. PCs perceived sessions as benefitting health, growth and knowledge of children. PCs felt that HCWs were good leaders but might be “wasting time on unimportant work”. Some PCs felt inhibited to discuss issues with male HCWs and many felt a respected woman in the community could do groups. Barriers include community perceptions of groups with women reporting being considered lazy leaving their homes/housework.

Conclusions:
Integrated programmes to provide advice on nutrition, developmental stimulation and health messages for all 0-2 year old children are readily accepted and enjoyed by carers. Sessions are not feasible to conduct solely through the HSAs. Any programme put in place needs to consider other cadres with time to devote (preferably female) who will be respected and accepted as part of the community. Barriers to be addressed include community perception of the importance of child development and stimulation as well as gender issues relating to time and opportunities.

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