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2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 21535 words || 
1. Parks, Bradley. and Roberts, J.. "Understanding Vulnerability To Disasters: A Cross-National Analysis Of 4,000 Climate-Related Disasters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In this paper, we find that that journalistic accounts and most expert case studies do not do justice to the complexity of causal forces producing and reproducing vulnerability to disasters. Using raw disaster data compiled by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), we develop three cross-national measures of climate risk, based on 4,040 climate-related natural disasters between 1980 and 2002. These are population-adjusted rates of the cumulative number of people killed, made homeless, or otherwise affected by climate-related disasters (wind storms, flooding, drought, and heat waves) during the period. The most powerful predictors of vulnerability to climate disasters are a country’s level of urbanization, the security of its property rights regime, its coastal exposure, national income, and levels of domestic inequality. We also find that behind these current “proximate” causes of a country’s ability to cope with climate disasters is the way it is “inserted” into the world economy. Countries with a colonial legacy of extraction of its resources – as measured by the narrowness of its export base – are structurally predisposed toward higher levels of social, economic, and institutional vulnerability. These structural disadvantages, we argue, limit their ability to protect themselves from poverty and environmental degradation, but also the growing frequency and strength of climate-related disasters. Disaster relief and prevention that treats only symptoms and not political and economic structure are doomed to longer-term failure.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document

2006 - American Studies Association Words: 502 words || 
2. Stoever, Jennifer. "“I Wouldn’t Change Puerto Rico by 4,000 New Yorks”: Tony Schwartz Records the Postwar Metropolis (1946-1958)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, Oct 12, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Black and Puerto Rican children bang out rhythms on trash cans and empty Pepsi bottles in a Harlem housing project. A Jewish grocer in Manhattan recounts the story of a dying friend whose last words told police “it was white folks that killed me, not colored folks.” A man in Spanish Harlem leans over a jukebox playing a nostalgic lament, translating the words that float past: “I wouldn’t change Puerto Rico by 4,000 New Yorks.” These unique and surprisingly resistant sonic moments are culled from the “sound effects” recordings made by Tony Schwartz on Folkways Records between 1946 and 1958.

Long before the eclectic mixing of the IPOD, Schwartz was splicing diverse snippets of urban life recorded through his wrist microphone on the streets of Manhattan. Schwartz’s audio productions form a rich and indispensable cultural archive that has yet to be mined by American Studies scholars. Linking the insights of the field of Sound Studies with my work on aurality and African American literature, I perform a “close listening” of Schwartz’ key New York recordings, exploring how albums like “New York 19” (1954) and “Nueva York: A Tape Documentary of Puerto Rican New Yorkers” (1955) function to construct New York as a transnational city that is music to white ears.

During the transitional postwar era of urban conflict, increased segregation, and accelerating “white flight,” Schwartz made 19 LPs for Folkways that simultaneously affirm and challenge the notion that music and audio culture function as forces of social cohesion in the United States. On one hand, Schwartz couples swift juxtaposition with seamless editing to present a vibrant, multicultural urban environment where the sounds of a black cab driver singing spirituals can co-exist with a Jewish salesman hawking Parker pens. Through an auditory recreation of the postwar metropolis—complete with rumbling El Trains, honking horns, and jackhammers—Schwartz attempts to reclaim the noisy, ethnically diverse urban streets as the preeminent crucible of American identity in the face of increasing white migration to the quiet, sterile, and secluded suburbs.

However, although invisible, the mechanical ear of the microphone is far from objective. While Schwartz presents his work as typical of what might be experienced on any day in 1950s New York, he is carefully editing the city, re-mixing its sounds primarily for an audience of eavesdropping white ears. Schwartz persuasively uses the sonic medium to make the threatening cultural “noise” of “the Other” recognizable as meaningful sound to the default (white) American ear. I argue that Schwartz’ recordings provide an important insight into an undertheorized aspect of race in America: the presence of an aural equivalent to the “white gaze.” Schwartz’ desire to provide his audience with a cultural exchange that will “enable you to hear the people around you with a new awareness and enjoyment,” attempts to blur the binary of “Us vs. Them,” even as it exposes the ways in which race, urban space, and national identity are powerfully constructed and understood through the ear.

3. Yamamoto, Hidehiro. and Pekkanen, Robert. "Preliminary Analysis of the First Ever Nationwide Survey of Japan's 300,000 Neighborhood Associations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Neighborhood associations in Japan blur the line between state and society. Inextricably local in their orientation, there is tremendous variation across the archipelago in how NHAs are organized and what they do. Unfortunately, scholars do not have a clear picture of this variation due to a lack of comparable data across the nation. The JIGS survey team led by Yutaka Tsujinaka of the University of Tsukuba is conducting the first nation-wide survey of Japan`s 300,000 neighborhood associations (NHAs) ever. Although a limited number of sureys of NHAs in delimited regions do exist, operational difficulties in implementation have prevented scholars from conducting a nationwide survey. The Japanese government has also not conducted any such survey. This paper presents the first results of the survey, discussing the distribution and vitality of NHAs across Japan. Beyond these organizational dimensions, the paper also investigates activities of the groups. Widespread variation is expected in the survey (which will be conducted in winter 2006-07) results. This paper will also present the results of the survey on the relationship between NHAs and the government. Specifically, we investigate variations in the patterns of relationship between NHAs and local governments across different regions in Japan—including the level of cooperation and support, as well as the differences in the scope of activities such as crime prevention, cleaning of the local environment, etc.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 145 words || 
4. Sheldon, Paul. "Save $1,000 per Inmate" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How much is "going green" worth to your institution?  Would it benefit your institution to save as much as $1,000 per inmate over the next 20 years?  

Paul Sheldon, Senior Advisor with Natural Capitalism Solutions and primary author of the ACA’s “Clean and Green” standard and policy, will offer pragmatic examples of technologies and strategies in use by prisons, jails, juvenile facilities, and community corrections institutions to increase efficiency, save money, and generate revenue, while protecting safety and security.

Examples will include lighting, HVAC, plug-in appliances, recycling, less toxic/less caustic chemicals, composting, local food, water efficiency, waste water treatment, local/renewable energy, transportation, and distance learning for staff and offender training.

In addition to offering real-world examples, the Mr. Sheldon will provide links and connections to practitioner resources, such as the National Institute of Justice's Greening Prisons Technology Guidebook and the National Institute of Corrections' Green Prisons guide.

2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
5. Evans, Mariah. "Communism, Capitalism, and Images of Class: Reference Groups, Reality, and Regime (43 Nations, 110,000 Individuals)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Throughout the world people differ vastly in how much social inequality they perceive. Some see a small elite at the top of their society, negligible middle classes, and an impoverished mass at the bottom. Others perceive their society as egalitarian and prosperous with the largest classes in the middle. Some of this reflects actual differences in inequality. But much reflects perceptual distortions. People of high socioeconomic status project their circumstances, and the similar circumstances of friends and relatives, onto society at large; those in prosperous nations do the same. More reflects political history: Communism was correctly perceived as egalitarian but after its fall new inequality combined with enduring poverty created an overwhelmingly inegalitarian image, one perceptually exaggerated by Communism's betrayal of its egalitarian ideology. In sharp contrast to this diversity, people everywhere share similar ideals about what society ought to be like, preferring a prosperous egalitarian society with the large majority in the middle; this creates a systematic gap between preference and perceived reality. Data are from the ISSP's 1987, 1992, 1999 and 2009 surveys and the World Inequality Study, providing representative national samples from 92 surveys in 43 nations with over 100,000 respondents. Analysis is by multi-level methods.

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