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2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 33 words || 
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1. Thelen, Sarah. "Why Should We Care? Why Should We Fight?: Justification of American Military Intervention in 1898 and 1991" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p85044_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Examining the debates building up to the War of 1898 and the 1991 Persian Gulf War, this paper analyzes the patterns of rhetorical analogy used in Senate debates over "authorizations to use force."

2007 - The American Studies Association Words: 460 words || 
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2. Ruiz, Jason. "Americans in the Treasure House: U.S. Travelers in Mexico and Narratives of Economic Conquest, 1898-1911" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The American Studies Association, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p186202_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The brief period between the Spanish-American War and the Mexican Revolution spurred an explosion of discourse regarding Mexico in U.S. popular culture. As Americans grappled with understanding their newfound “possessions” acquired as a result of the war, some asked how Mexico might fit into (or would resist) a growing U.S. Empire. These discourses, located in a variety of popular texts, often focused on Mexico’s splendorous natural resources and cheap labor as the means to convince U.S. audiences that Mexico could serve as an object of economic – if not territorial – expansion. As geologist N.H. Darton argued in the pages of The National Geographic Magazine in 1907 (rearticulating much older imperialist discourses regarding Mexico), Mexico was viewed as the “treasure house of the world,” ripe for exploitation by an “energetic American race.”

This talk, based on a chapter of my dissertation, will introduce the audience to representations of Mexico in popular magazines and travelogues that focused on Mexico’s many resources and economic opportunities. To do so, it will focus on three main representational trends that were used to convince U.S. audiences of economic possibilities in Mexico and the ease of doing business there, themes that some writers explicitly connected to their calls for the “Americanization” of the Mexican industries and lands: natural resources, U.S. expatriate communities, and civil order. It will use Chicano literary critic Gilbert G. González’s theory of “economic conquest” to unpack how and why some Americans saw Mexico as an object for massive foreign investment – and, eventually, possible annexation. González contends that this investment, largely aided by the regime of Mexican dictator Porfirio Díaz, led to imperialist relations between the United States and Mexico that were characterized by economic rather than military domination. This paper extends this argument by asking how writers, photographers, and audiences of the period performed the cultural work of economic empire.

By exploring the ways in which Mexican cultural and racial difference has constructed the two nations as simultaneously very close and quite alien to one another, this talk will clearly engage with the theme América Aquí. It asks how national boundaries are discursively constructed around ideas of race, economics, and culture, and challenges the audience to see links between the historical and contemporary constructions of Mexican difference in the U.S. popular imagination. To be sure, contemporary perceptions of Mexico are at least partly rooted in the early twentieth century and ideas about Mexican difference that surfaced in 1898 and after continue to shape U.S. popular opinion on such issues as migration, free trade, and the linguistic and cultural transformation of the United States. Therefore, this project interrogates the cultural and political dividing lines that make up América Aquí.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Pages: 85 pages || Words: 45225 words || 
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3. Hernandez-Lopez, Ernesto. "Guantánamo's Racialized Space: Created by "Anglo Superiority" (1898) and Sustained with Detention (2002 - ?)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p304360_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the U.S. base in Guantánamo, Cuba as a racialized space from its creation during U.S. occupation of Cuba in 1898 to current detention reserved primarily to persons of color. The base is a product of the Platt Amendment (1901), making Cuba a U.S. protectorate, denying Cuba full sovereignty, and requiring a U.S. base in Cuban territory. Race justified these sovereignty limitations. Notions of Anglo superiority, “Latin,” black, and mixed-race inability to govern, and Protestant missions characterized U.S. foreign relations with Cuba and the world. Military and economic objectives required Cuba lease a base to the U.S., under present non-sovereign terms. Historic racial power in foreign relations and international law created Guantánamo. Race similarly colors detention in the “War on Terror.” While detainees, including those released, total over 700 and represent 47 nationalities detention is primarily reserved to South Asian, Middle-Eastern, or Arab identities. Painting detainees as “jihadists” serves as proxies for Muslim detention. “Unlawful enemy combatant” classifications mimic historic identities of the “savage.” Detainees are while "savages" were excluded from international law protections. Race whether tied to nationality, religion, or neo-savagery, characterizes Guantánamo, illuminating critical commonalities in myriad nationalities and detainee classifications. Despite diverse identities, being in Guantánamo’s legal space imposes these commonalities. Foreign relations history created racialized space. Detention keeps it current. Using insights from geography, post-colonialism, and history, this paper identifies racialized power in the law and asks how rights protections may check this power in U.S. peripheries.

2016 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 222 words || 
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4. Manchanda, Mahima. "The Valorized Model of Girlhood: Examining Colonial Girlhood and Religious Identity through the Writings of Bhai Vir Singh (1898-1945)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1074301_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to contextualize and examine the characteristics of an ideal Sikh girl through the writings of a Singh Sabha stalwart: Bhai Vir Singh. Late 19th century Punjab also saw the emergence of reformist literature on conjugal relations, which was highly relevant to girls in a society where they were expected to marry in their teens. My project seeks to ask whether this new literature led to the creation of a new cultural category of girlhood. Viewing girlhood as a cultural and historical construct, my research aims to demonstrate that the boundaries of what constituted girlhood were being redefined and renegotiated under reformist and colonial pressure. The late nineteenth century saw a sustained campaign by the Singh Sabha to push for a distinct identity for the Sikhs and remove the practices that were considered deviant. In this context, the writings of Bhai Vir Singh are significant not just due to the plethora of reformist tracts written by them, but also the shifting definitions of girlhood that his works grapple with. His writings also highlight how the indigenous reformers grappled with British ideals of girlhood. In this context, the purpose behind publication of such texts, and the question of “authorship” and “audience” shall be explored to understand the development of an idealized model of a Sikh girl under colonialism.

2019 - LASA Words: 236 words || 
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5. Jiménez, Marilisa. "Stories of the Impossible and the Possible: Race, History, and U.S. Empire in Children’s Books about Puerto Rico from 1898-1920s" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LASA, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, USA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1463228_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: I contextual how the 1898 U.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico, during the Spanish-American War, sparked dueling stories about Puerto Rican history and the role of literacy and literature. Beginning in 1898, the U.S. tradition spans materials based on accounts by anthropologists, newspaper reporters, and children’s writers which fed the American public’s curiosity about the island and its inhabitants. Citing passages from these children’s volumes such as Greater America Our Latest Insular Possessions (1899), I argue that U.S. writers created a series of faux history primers which justified colonization in Puerto Rico even as they struggled to present Puerto Ricans as mixed-race “brothers.” I place these volumes, and the overwhelming sense of creating a historical account for this new colony in this tradition, in conversation with the project of Puerto Rican writers, beginning with cultural theorists of the late 1920s who sought to refute U.S. historical erasure through their own texts for young people in U.S. colonial schools, such as Manuel Fernandez Juncos, Juan Ramon Jiménez, and Angeles Pastor. Children’s books become a place for developing a historical account and tradition, although both U.S. and Puerto Rican writers wrestle with ideas about anti-blackness, classism, cultural nationalism, and education. I argue that a study of these children’s books underlines how—although Puerto Rican adults were often depicted as docile, isolated, and fractured by the colonial encounter by both U.S. and island theorists—children were seen as portals of limitless potential.

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