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2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 427 words || 
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1. Lee, Terence. "The Military and the Use of Force in Political Crises: Comparing Responses in 1986 Philippines and 1998 Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p151077_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: In a political crisis, under what conditions will militaries comply with an authoritarian regime’s order to suppress demonstrations? This paper analyzes the cases of military non-compliance to the task of regime maintenance during the May 1998 Indonesian and February 1986 Filipino political crises during which major political demonstrations led to the collapse of the Suharto and Marcos regime respectively.
This paper argues that military insubordination of an authoritarian regime’s orders to suppress popular demonstrations occurs: (1) when there is intense intra-military conflict; and (2) arising from this contestation, the politically marginalized officer(s) gains domestic and foreign support for the non-compliant act against the authoritarian regime. The military’s non-compliance of orders to suppress political protests against authoritarian rule is the politically marginalized officer(s)’ response to eliminate the authoritarian regime and their rival(s) within the armed forces.
To provide a robust test of the intra-military conflict argument, I examine this proposition with an alternative explanation based on principal-agent models––militaries (agents) are likely to be subordinate to orders to use force on protestors if authoritarian regimes (principals) possess the institutional capacity to detect malfeasance and punish recalcitrant officers through personnel changes within the military organization.
The paper is organized in three parts. The first outlines the two theoretical arguments, and the second assesses the empirical evidence of the two cases vis-à-vis the two theories. The final part assesses the implications of the intra-military conflict proposition for the study of civil-military relations in authoritarian regimes.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 8747 words || 
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2. Kwok, Man-Shan. "Enterprise Reform in China 1986-2000: The Institutional Causes of Corporate Layoffs and Reorganizations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p110531_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Sociological studies on economic transitions provide a theory of institutional change from egalitarian socialism to modern market societies (Stark 1992, 1996; Walder 1995). While early transition studies focus on the process and social impact of market transitions, recent studies show a mixed transition linking the legacies of socialism to the present. The circulation or turnover of major players has been critical to this economic transformation. This paper shows that the broad political context influences corporate transformation, and that corporate actors overcome political hurdles in order to implement a survival strategy. In this study of corporate reorganizations and layoffs, results show that firms experiencing CEO changes will be more likely to adopt both layoffs and reorganizations. However, the effect of CEO succession appears to be dampened by the introduction of a state policy on layoffs.

2003 - International Communication Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 10690 words || 
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3. Cakars, Janis. "Media in the Arsenal of Nonviolence, Latvia 1986-1991" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p111782_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the role media played in the Latvian independence movement from 1986 to 1991. The Latvians—along with their neighbors the Estonians and Lithuanians—led what Mikhail Gorbachev called the “parade of sovereignties” and played an instrumental role in the collapse of the USSR while striving for their own freedom. The most striking characteristic of Latvia’s independence movement is its steady use of nonviolent action. Media were at the center of the strategy and tactics of the liberation effort. This paper explores the relationship between media, nonviolence and the successful conclusion of the movement to reclaim Latvian statehood.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 32 words || 
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4. Chang, Yongjin. "The Effectiveness of False Claims Act 1986 Amendment  - Focused on Department of Defense" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p139636_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper evaluates the amendments of False Claims Act 1986, which is successful to increase the number of false claims, considering changes of extraneous variables and focuses on Department of Defense (DOD).

2006 - Rural Sociological Society Words: 153 words || 
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5. Ten Eyck, Toby. "Nanotechnology's past: Newspaper Accounts From 1986 to 2003" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Seelbach Hilton Hotel, Louisville, Kentucky, Aug 10, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p124678_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Coming on the heels of the debate over biotechnology, nanotechnology faces a number of challenges, including public acceptance. One of the main points of contact between lay consumers and nanotechnology is within public arenas such as newspapers. To gain a sense of the ways in which this issue has been presented, we coded 684 articles archived in Lexis-Nexis between 1986 and 2003. We found that university scientists and business interested were most likely to be used as sources (273 and 216 respectively), that the framing was typically progressive (57% of the articles), while the evaluation was likely to be positive (55%), and metaphors (such as “human hair” and “very small”) were used approximately in one-third of the articles. These findings fit with the notion that new technologies are often treated in a “gee-whiz” way by reporters, even though biotechnology has been hotly debated in the last few years.

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