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2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 15154 words || 
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1. Gutterman, Ellen. "Corruption and Compliance: Explaining Variations in Compliance with the 1997 OECD Anti-Bribery Convention" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65518_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: What explains variations in state compliance with the 1997 OECD "Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions."? In an initial phase of follow-up monitoring to evaluate each country's implementing legislation, this Convention's peer-review monitoring group found a surprising variation in the compliance records of the OECD's four largest members. While Germany and the United States 'satisfactorily' complied with the Convention, France only 'sufficiently' complied and the United Kingdom did not comply. Why did some states comply and others not? Given the Convention's optimal design, function, and normative basis from the point of view of compliance theory, this outcome is particularly surprising. Employing evidence from research in the fours countries, and focusing on the U.K. case in particular, the paper assesses three alternative explanations for the observed variations in compliance: unintentional non-compliance; strategic trade; and norms related to transnational bribery. The analysis finds that none of the explanations initially suggested by the evidence is complete, but that a combination of strategic trade interests and normative factors is at play. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this study for compliance theory in IR, and theories of international politics in general.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 36 pages || Words: 13744 words || 
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2. Gutterman, Ellen. "Anti-Corruption Norms and Strategic Trade Interests: Explaining (Non)compliance with the 1997 OECD Anti-Bribery Convention" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p61612_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explains why, among a group of relatively similar states, certain states but not others would comply with the same international legal commitment. Drawing on concepts from the ‘ideas’ literature in comparative politics, the literature on global norms in IR, and analyses of reasoning and adjudication in legal philosophy, the paper develops a theoretical framework with which to explain variations in compliance by the US, Germany, France, and the UK with the 1997 OECD anti-bribery Convention. The central argument is that state compliance with an international commitment is a function of the effectiveness with which the global norm at stake in that commitment is articulated in a state’s domestic politics. Effective norm articulation can create the conditions under which a state is unable to produce justifiable reasons for non-compliance, and can provoke compliance despite important countervailing material interests. In the case of the OECD Convention, both powerful strategic trade interests and a powerful international anti-corruption norm are at stake. An analysis of state compliance with the OECD Convention in light of strategic trade theory, however, reveals the limitations of a materialist explanation based on the rationalist framework. Instead, an analysis of norm articulation in the four cases shows the importance of non-materialist variables, having to do with features of the actor that is doing the norm articulation in the domestic political context – the norm entrepreneur – and of the domestic political and normative context into which the global norm is introduced. These features generate four key variables: the legitimacy of the domestic norm entrepreneur; whether the norm entrepreneur enjoys access to the relevant political institutions and policy makers; whether the norm is framed as an element of a high priority policy area, with this framing the result of strategic, instrumental rationality on the part of the norm entrepreneur; and whether the norm resonates in the domestic public policy context, with this resonance a function of public sentiment.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 9282 words || 
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3. Milstein, Andrew. "Nominations and Institutional Conflict: The Cases of the Clinton 1997 and Bush 2005 Nominations to the Executive and Judiciary" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40970_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: With elections providing less of a mandate for public policy, focal points for institutional conflict can be found in such realms as confirmation battles over federal nominations in the Senate. Confirmation battles, increasingly a tool of opposition over the last thirty years, provide an important window into conflict between the two national elective branches. To illustrate this conflict, two collections of cases from modern presidents in their first year of their second term are closely examined: the 1997 set of Clinton executive and judicial nominations and the 2005 set of Bush nominations. These two cases provide interesting perspectives on issues pertaining to path dependence, changes in Senate norms, and divided government.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 9656 words || 
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4. Guth, James. "Religion and Roll Calls: Religious Influences in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1997-2002" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p209606_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Although the influence of religion on the political behavior of the mass public is the subject of a growing literature, few studies have assessed the way that religion affects the behavior of political elites, including members of Congress. This project uses documentary and roll call data to analyze how religious factors impacted voting in the House of Representatives from 1997 to 2002 (during the 105th through the 107th Congresses). We begin by putting legislative institutions in the context of the two dominant theoretical approaches to the electoral influence of religion, the ethnoreligious and religious restructuring models. We then note that the limited work on Congressional behavior has not fully reflected the frameworks or insights used by that electoral literature, which stresses the multidimensional nature of religion. We then outline an alternative approach, showing how religious affiliations, as well as theological perspectives and religious involvement influence voting on several summary measures of legislative behavior. In addition, we consider the impact of district religious composition on member behavior. We conclude with a stringent multivariate analysis that controls for several important variables typically included in legislative analysis, finding that religious measures often survive those controls.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 26 pages || Words: 6987 words || 
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5. King, Leslie. "Factionalism and Change in the Sierra Club: An Examination of the 1997-98 Debate on Immigration" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107089_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper addresses the relationship between factionalism and change in a social movement organization by examining an intense debate over immigration policy that developed within the Sierra Club during 1997 and 1998. I argue that the debate grew especially heated because the question of population growth in the United States and its effects on the environment revealed a fundamental divergence in environmental philosophy among the club's members. The ultimate decision that the club should remain neutral on the question of immigration marked not only a significant policy shift but also was indicative of a changing ideology. I explain the development of this factionalism and resultant change through a theoretical framework that incorporates factors both internal and external to the movement organization.

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