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2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 26 pages || Words: 7390 words || 
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1. Grove, Andrea. "Now for the Hard Part: Ratification Theory and Nationalist Behavior After the 1998 Good Friday Agreement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65665_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper applies Frensley?s (2001) ratification theory to the case of Northern Ireland?s catholics/nationalists during the post-1998 agreement. The main hypothesis of the theory suggests that approaches failing to recognize different phases of conflict settlements (especially the post-agreement ratification stage in which leaders either sell or undercut the value of an agreement to constituents) leave us unable to understand changes in identity inclusivity that in turn help produce success or failure of an agreement. According to Frensley?s model, ?if a settlement?s new rights regime disadvantages factional rentiers, they may mobilize constituents on identitive dimensions to oppose settlement.? This paper investigates this claim with regard to this particular case. Further, while Frensley?s illustration of the model focused on majority groups (i.e., Protestants/unionists), this paper explores the validity of a rent-seeking approach for understanding dynamics within political minorities, who could be less likely to perceive lost rents from settlement.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 7311 words || 
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2. Strömbäck, Jesper. "Commercialization and the Media Coverage of Swedish National Elections in 1998 and 2002" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p41535_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study whether commercialization can explain the extent to which Swedish news media at the 1998 and 2002 national elections framed politics as a game rather than as issues, followed an interpretive rather than a descriptive journalistic style, and, finally, how many sentences politicians were allowed to speak for themselves. Using quantitative content analysis, the study includes the two leading national broadsheet papers, the two leading national tabloids, and the three main broadcast news shows during the three weeks prior to each election.
Contrary to expectations, the results show that even though the Swedish media system has become more commercialized during the last 15-20 years, commercialization is not the decisive factor in explaining the extent to which leading Swedish media in their election coverage frame politics as a strategic game, follow an interpretive journalistic style or let politicians speak for themselves. Even though commercialization of the media is a global force, affecting news media in democracies around the world, most news media are still rooted in their country- and cultural-specific contexts, where they have to operate within the limits set by political regulations, audience expectations, journalistic norms and values, and current events as they play out during different election campaigns.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 427 words || 
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3. Lee, Terence. "The Military and the Use of Force in Political Crises: Comparing Responses in 1986 Philippines and 1998 Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p151077_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: In a political crisis, under what conditions will militaries comply with an authoritarian regime’s order to suppress demonstrations? This paper analyzes the cases of military non-compliance to the task of regime maintenance during the May 1998 Indonesian and February 1986 Filipino political crises during which major political demonstrations led to the collapse of the Suharto and Marcos regime respectively.
This paper argues that military insubordination of an authoritarian regime’s orders to suppress popular demonstrations occurs: (1) when there is intense intra-military conflict; and (2) arising from this contestation, the politically marginalized officer(s) gains domestic and foreign support for the non-compliant act against the authoritarian regime. The military’s non-compliance of orders to suppress political protests against authoritarian rule is the politically marginalized officer(s)’ response to eliminate the authoritarian regime and their rival(s) within the armed forces.
To provide a robust test of the intra-military conflict argument, I examine this proposition with an alternative explanation based on principal-agent models––militaries (agents) are likely to be subordinate to orders to use force on protestors if authoritarian regimes (principals) possess the institutional capacity to detect malfeasance and punish recalcitrant officers through personnel changes within the military organization.
The paper is organized in three parts. The first outlines the two theoretical arguments, and the second assesses the empirical evidence of the two cases vis-à-vis the two theories. The final part assesses the implications of the intra-military conflict proposition for the study of civil-military relations in authoritarian regimes.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 14942 words || 
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4. Claro da Fonseca, Sara. "Immigrant Constituencies as a Political Challenge - The German Federal Elections 1998-2005 Revisited" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p151321_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: This paper examines the German political parties’ strategies towards immigrant constituencies in the Bundestag elections from 1998 to 2005. Ever since Germany became a country of immigration in the 1970s, two parties have silently profited from the immigrant vote while polarizing the electorate over immigration-related issues: while the Social Democrats (SPD) relied on the working-class Gastarbeiter vote, the Christian Democrats (CDU/CSU) received a large share of the ethnic German Aussiedler vote. The liberalization of the German citizenship regime in 1999, however, led to an enlargement of the immigrant electorate and changed its long-time equilibrium. Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of Gastarbeiter and their descendants acquiring German citizenship, while Aussiedler immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union keeps falling. This paper hypothesises that the 1999 citizenship reform has produced a new mobilization scenario, with the parties now actively trying to get electoral support from immigrant constituencies. In order to achieve this, they avoid immigration-related issues and increasingly nominate immigrant candidates in their platforms. Empirical candidate evidence from the IMMCANDS database shows that the German political parties indeed started moving from a polarization to an incorporation strategy in the aftermath of the 1999 citizenship reform.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 6583 words || 
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5. Kim, KiDeuk. "Exploratory Study on Social Contagion of Crime: Results from Chicago homicide data from 1998 to 2001" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-12-06 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p110441_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Contagion can be defined as a process by which a disease, behavior, or mood transmits from one person to the next. Following a few pioneering studies on the contagious nature of violence, prolific efforts have evolved to understand the temporal fluctuations or spatial spread of crime. Despite a growing interest in social contagion, existent research has been neglectful of the linkage between theoretical accounts of social contagion and empirical evidence supporting temporal fluctuations or spatial distribution of crime. The current paper examines one of the mechanisms by which social contagion of crime can be further elaborated. The main proposition of this study is that population density, ethnic homogeneity, and the concentration of social transactions will facilitate the process of social contagion, which, in turn, explains temporal change or spatial spread of crime. Utilizing trajectory modeling and spatial econometric modeling, the study presents a theoretical framework for and empirical evidence of the contagious nature of crime.

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