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2003 - International Communication Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 6191 words || 
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1. Lee, Jong Hyuk. and Choi, Yun Jung. "Is There Gender Equality in Online Media? The Photo Analysis of the 2002 Salt Lake Winter Olympics and the 2002 Pusan Asian Games Coverage" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p111735_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine if gender bias exists in the U.S. and Korean online media. For this purpose, this study compared male photos and female photos presented by two countries¡¯ online media coverage of the 2002 Salt Lake Winter Olympic Games and the 2002 Pusan Asian Games respectively. The collected male and female photos were analyzed in four ways: (1) how many photos were posted (2) how impressively the athletes were described in the photos (3) how importantly the photos were presented (4) which sports categories were more prominently covered according to gender.
The findings showed that there was an inequality between photos featuring male and female athletes in terms of frequency and sports categories. However, there was no significant discrimination between photos with male and female athletes in presenting importantly. Impressiveness of athletes in photos was not different between male and female in the U.S. online media, but difference was found in Korean online media.
The result of this study suggested that online media have a more potential of treating males and females equally compared with traditional media. However, this online media¡¯s potential should be interpreted according to different cultural contexts.

2004 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 164 words || 
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2. McDonald, Michael. "A Validity Check of the 2002 Exit Poll" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs, Phoenix, Arizona, May 11, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p115861_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The 2002 exit poll was plagued by severe problems on election night that prompted Voter News Service, the organization that conducted the poll, to declare to news organizations on election night that the poll was unreliable and should not be used. Recently, at the urgings of AAPOR members, VNS released the exit poll for academic research. Is the information on the 2002 exit poll valid and will it thus provide valuable insights into voting behavior in this historic election? To assess the validity of the 2002 exit poll, I compare the demographics of the exit poll with two other polls: the 2002 Current Population Survey Voter Supplement File and the 2002 National Election Survey. I further compare the 2002 bias with the exit poll bias towards higher education in the 1998 election. The 2002 analysis is to be completed, and if a substantial bias is found on the 2002 exit poll, I intend to suggest a corrected weighting scheme.

2003 - American Political Science Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5518 words || 
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3. Kraus, Jeffrey. "Generational Conflict in Urban Politics: the 2002 Newark Mayoral Election." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p62173_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper examines the 2002 Mayoral election in Newark, NJ. In particular, the paper focuses on how generational differences between two African-American politicians translated into political conflict--a conflict which attracted national attention.

2003 - American Political Science Association Pages: 26 pages || Words: 9912 words || 
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4. Blais, Andre., Loewen, Peter. and Bodet, Marc. "Strategic Voting in a Mixed System: The 2002 New Zealand Election" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p64072_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We ascertain the nature, extent, and consequences of strategic voting for each of the two
ballots in the 2002 New Zealand election. The study is based on a whole battery of questions about
voters’ preferences and perceptions of the likely outcome of the election, questions that were
specifically designed to tap the various forms of strategic voting in a mixed electoral system. We
find that 81f voters cast a strategic vote on the constituency (plurality rule) ballot. This strategic
vote benefited the two major parties, Labour and National, at the expense of the smaller parties.
We distinguish three types of strategic voting on the list ballot: seat-seeking (abandoning a
party that is expected to win no seat), power-seeking (abandoning a party that is expected not to be
in government), and coalition-seeking (abandoning a party to prevent a single-party majority
government). We show that the three forms of strategic voting took place. All in all, 71003410535f voters
cast a strategic vote on the list ballot, almost as many as on the constituency ballot. The
consequences of these forms of strategic voting on the list ballot were partly contradictory,
however, and so the net effect on the outcome of the election was more muted.
Our study suggests that strategic voting is widespread in mixed systems, or more precisely in
systems with two separate ballots. We also demonstrate that strategic voting was not confined to
the most politically aware segment of the electorate.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 50 pages || Words: 12124 words || 
Info
5. Horowitz, Shale. and Kim, Sunwoong. "Anti-Americanism in Electoral Politics: Insights from South Korea's 2002 Presidential Election" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p41484_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since September 11, 2001, anti-Americanism has emerged as an important issue in international politics. In democratic election campaigns, anti-Americanism should be an attractive issue where it is expected to have a favorable impact on key swing vote constituencies. Anti-Americanism has certain inherent ideological appeals and more varied historically based attractions. Anti-Americanism should be least attractive where countries continue to rely on U.S. security guarantees. South Korea’s December 2002 presidential election, in which winner Roh Moo-hyun openly sympathized with anti-American demonstrators, appears to contradict this expectation. Yet closer analysis of individual-level polling data shows that anti-Americanism was, both statistically and substantively, much less significant than alternative campaign issues. By activating the numerous voters hostile to the North Korean regime, anti-Americanism actually hurt the victor’s electoral chances. The approach appears useful in understanding why anti-Americanism is a more prominent electoral issue in some regions, such as Western Europe and Latin America, and a less prominent one in others, for example Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Oceania.

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