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2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Words: 202 words || 
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1. Laws, Serena. "Access to Bankruptcy, Access to Justice: Attorney Access as a Factor in Bankruptcy Filing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p360399_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: T.H. Marshall famously conceived of citizenship as containing political, social and civil rights. Often forgotten is that Marshall’s “civil rights” not only includes freedom of speech, of the press, etc., but also equal access to the legal system. My paper explores this understudied connection between legal access and social rights in a particular policy area—bankruptcy filing. Filing for bankruptcy is an important avenue of relief for Americans in financial trouble, yet it is not equally accessible in part because it requires access to a lawyer. Using data from the Administrative Office of the Courts, the Legal Services Corporation, and the GSS, I construct a measure of legal access and assign a legal access score to all bankruptcy districts. First, I hypothesize that consumer bankruptcy filings will be higher in those districts with a higher legal access score. Second, I expect states with high levels of legal access to also have high levels of social rights. Third, I expect the ratio of Ch. 7 to Ch. 13 bankruptcy filings to be higher in areas with high levels of social rights. The analysis contributes not only to knowledge about bankruptcy but also emphasizes the important role of legal access in certain social policy areas.

2015 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 263 words || 
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2. Salvaggio, Marko. "‘Access to Tools’: Access to Backpacking Subcultural Ideologies and Practices" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, Apr 01, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p981447_index.html>
Publication Type: Formal research paper presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper draws from over a year’s worth of data collected from a mobile ethnography about backpacking subculture in Central America. Informed by theories of leisure and tourism and cultural studies, I examine backpacking subculture whose members celebrate an ideology of freedom, adventure, and authentic experiences that are in opposition to mainstream tourist modes. Yet in the increasingly mobile 21st-century, global tourism development and its market forces deeply influence backpackers' practices and the types of experiences backpackers claim to seek.

In this paper, I describe the core tools that backpackers use to travel independently throughout Central America for an extended period of time. I specifically describe how and why the backpack, guidebook, hostel, and local transportation are core tools central to shaping backpacking subculture, ideologies, and practices. Since tools open up options and ideas for people, and ultimately “remake us,” the tools that backpackers use to travel independently throughout Central America for an extended period of time also remake their subculture. As such, the backpack, guidebook, hostel, and local transportation, each have distinct functions that enable backpackers to perform their subcultural practices, tasks, and activities, as well as maintain their shared ideas, ideals, and beliefs about backpacking. As these core backpacking tools become increasingly commodified within the context of global tourism, how and why backpackers use these tools seem to suggest a contradiction between their backpacking ideologies and practices. Therefore, I also describe how backpackers negotiate tensions that arise within their subculture through the use of these core tools in the face of global tourism.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 742 words || 
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3. Spaull, Nicholas. and Taylor, Stephen. "Measuring access to learning over a period of increased access to schooling: The case of Southern and Eastern Africa 2000-2007" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p978528_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objectives:
This paper develops a composite measure of educational access and educational quality and uses this new measure to evaluate on empirical grounds whether expansions in access to education between 2000 and 2007 have been accompanied by improvements in learning. The 10 countries under review are all in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely; Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

Conceptual framework:
Drawing on the work of Lewin (2008), Hanushek and Woessmann (2008) and Pritchett (2013) we take the view that the most appropriate measure of education system success in Africa is not simply enrolment or grade completion (access) but access-plus-learning (quality). Drawing on the work of these earlier scholars we develop a new method to examine the interplay between access and quality in these 10 Sub-Saharan African countries.

Analytical methods:
To develop the composite measure of educational access and educational quality in we use household survey data for grade completion from the Demographic and Health Surveys of each country, and a cross-national survey of educational achievement (The Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) for cognitive skills. We also develop a method for combining grade completion data and learning outcomes data for various subgroups based on gender, wealth and a gender-wealth interaction. This new statistic measures the proportions of children in the population (including those enrolled and not enrolled) that reach particular thresholds of literacy and numeracy outcomes.

Data sources and evidence
The study is particularly data intensive and requires two Demographic and Health Surveys per country, one circa 2003 and one circa 2010. It also requires data on cognitive outcomes at two points in time. The dates of the DHS surveys used for each of the 10 countries are as follows: Kenya (DHS 2003 and DHS 2007/8), Lesotho (DHS 2004 and DHS 2009), Malawi (DHS 2004 DHS 2010), Mozambique (DHS 2003 and DHS 2011), Namibia (DHS 2000 and DHS 2006/7), South Africa (GHS 2004 and GHS 2009), Swaziland (MICS 2000 and MICS 2007), Tanzania (DHS 2004/5 and DHS 2010), Uganda (DHS 2006 and DHS 2010), Zambia 2001/2 and DHS 2007). For the data on cognitive outcomes we use the Southern and East African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) data for 2000 and 2007.


Results and/or conclusions
Using the new method developed in this paper we show how ‘access-to-literacy’ and ‘access-to-numeracy’ changed over the period 2000-2007, a period of substantial increase in access to schooling for many countries. To provide one example, in 2000 only 25% of a cohort of Mozambican children completed grade 6 and acquired basic literacy skills (reading for meaning), compared to 42% of a cohort in 2007. In all 10 countries there was an improvement in access to literacy and numeracy, challenging the widely held perception that there is always an access-quality trade-off in education. In particular, girls and those in relatively poor households benefited most from this improvement in access to literacy and numeracy. Furthermore, there was also greater access to higher order literacy and numeracy learning as well as improvements in higher grade attainment levels, as measured by grade 9 completion rates. The results are robust to an alternative method for measuring access to learning that uses administrative data on school enrolments rather than household survey data. The paper concludes by stressing that the quality of education needs to remain the focus of the discourse, but also that we need to look at what has actually happened in Africa before making conclusions about an access-quality trade-off.

Significance of the study
This paper develops a new method for conceptualizing education system performance in countries that have incomplete or changing access to education. Given the centrality of access and quality to the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals, the method developed in this chapter is central to the development and education agendas in the coming decades. By measuring the proportion of all children (both in school and out) that have access-to-learning, the new method takes into account two important elements: (1) that comparing average test scores across countries with different enrolment , grade completion and dropout rates is misleading, (2) that comparing average test scores over time when access to education is expanding rapidly is also misleading. Given that incomplete access is widespread across developing countries in the world, the methods developed in this paper are applicable beyond Sub-Saharan Africa. Using PASEC data and SERCE data for francophone West-Africa and Latin America respectively, other researchers could apply this method in a number of other countries around the world.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 681 words || 
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4. Ahn, Elise. "Mapping access to extra: Glimpses into the demand for and access to private education services among Kazakhstani youth" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p976498_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the last 20 years, Almaty has been undergoing urbanization due to internal emigration, regional immigration, suburbanization, and major changes in the population’s economic activities. In this context, pre-existing socio-spatial segregation between urban and rural areas has become more apparent and new patterns of social and spatial inequity have been emerging. The project's initial aim was to collect and map an ambitious set of attribute data related to students’ socio-economic status (SES) by schools in order to see whether a geographically systematic gradient would emerge in terms of students’ SES and their academic achievement and aspirations. But due to time constraints and limited access to schools and information, a more focused data set was collected and then aggregated at the district level in order to avoid potential negative ramifications for schools that participated in this project Although the spatial component of this project subsequently became less nuanced due to these limitations, by looking at comparatively across districts and within Almaty “analysis of spatial distributions… including the fragmented and localized delivery of national policy and the role that space and place can play in moderating and mediating the impacts of education policy” and still provided insight into the way education (in)equity as a phenomenon is emerging in relationship to the "shape" of urbanization in Almaty (Symes 2010; cf. Jessop 2002; Sassen 2006, 2007). Further, this approach “adds a new analytical dimension to our theoretical and explanatory models, by providing additional comparators, i.e., across space, in a similar fashion to the ways in which analyzing trends over time can add greater analytical power” (Symes 2010).

Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between reported extracurricular education activities (e.g., tutoring, summer camps, and other lessons) and its spatial distribution throughout the city of Almaty. Issues related to these types of activities are then situated within the broader research project focus, which was finding out the characteristics between students that seemed to have a plethora of access to different socio-cultural and educational resources and those who did not.

The main method of primary data collection was a survey. The survey was developed in English and then translated into both Russian and Kazakh. The survey instrument was initially pilot tested in 9 schools among 247 8th to 11th graders in both Kazakh and Russian Medium of Instruction (MOI) schools. After the pilot test, the research team adjusted the questions, question order, and also decide to exclude 8th graders from the study due to poor response rates. In the end, primary data was collected through a survey distributed among 3000 9th to 11th graders in 30 Almaty schools during Spring 2014. The finalized survey was a sample-based assessment and consisted of 52 questions (vs. 58 questions in the pilot), which was divided into four sections (education, language and culture, household data, and personal) on A3 paper folded into a booklet. The data was coded and then layered onto Almaty district-level maps for analysis.

The data collection process itself yielded some interesting observations and pieces of information that helped shaped the development of the survey tool, as well as providing insight into how certain macro-level education reforms are being implemented at the local level, e.g., the challenges to normative assumptions made by research focusing on macro-level language policy and planning efforts (cf. Fierman 2009a, 2009b) by looking at actual MOI-policy implementation in schools. Moreover, the analysis exposed glimpses interesting relationships between ethnolinguistic attributes, social networks, general school location and those who reported having access to (and conversely, those who did not have access to) supplementary education resources.

This paper contributes to broader discussions in comparative and international education in two areas. First, the use of spatial analysis in looking at emergent issues of education (in)equity formation dovetails with the current discussion regarding the role of spatial analysis in the humanities and social sciences (Larson and Beech 2014). Second, this study provides a current glimpse into the demand for and access to resources related to extracurricular education activities in Almaty, thereby informing the broader discussion on the privatization of education in both Kazakhstan and Central Asia (Silova 2009).

2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 229 words || 
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5. Li, Xiaojun. "Bureaucratic Access and Policy Influence: Explaining Trade Liberalization during China's WTO Accession" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1189693_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: China’s historic entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) was not preceded by democratic reform or fragmentation of power in the ruling party, factors suggested by scholars as crucial in creating space for pro-free trade groups to promote trade liberalization in developing and post-communist countries. How then did China manage to overcome strong domestic opposition to liberalization and wrap up bilateral negotiations with 37 WTO members leading up to its accession in 2001? This article offers an institutional explanation for trade liberalization, focusing on changes in the access of domestic groups to the policymaking process. Specifically, I argue that the Administrative Reform of 1998 was an institutional renovation that (1) significantly reduced protectionist pressures from domestic industries managed by ministries downgraded during the reform, and at the same time, (2) allowed Chinese negotiators to offer additional concessions in these industries in exchange for protection in those deemed more important by the state and/or under more pressures from the foreign governments. I find empirical support for this argument using data on China’s negotiated WTO tariff rates as well as internal memos recently declassified by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and negotiation documents between China and the contracting parties. The findings not only shed new light on the trade policymaking process at a critical juncture in Chinese history, but also deepen our understanding of the politics of trade liberalization in non-democracies.

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