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2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 212 words || 
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1. Hunt, Joel., Wilson, Ronald. and Brown, Timothy. "Critiquing Measures for Predictive Hot Spot Accuracy: Do the PAI and RRI indicate Hot Spot Accuracy?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2019-05-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p432654_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Hot Spot analysis has become a norm for the majority of police departments that use geographic information systems (GIS). However, of the many techniques available the question that has remained is which hot spots technique to use? In an effort to answer that question, two measures of hot spot accuracy have been introduced, the Predictive Accuracy Index (PAI) and the Recapture Rate Index (RRI). These two measures are of particular interest because they consider grouped data, whether at the police beat, census block group, or even census tract (Some of the techniques work directly on the observations themselves).
The aim of this research is to describe the potential pros and cons of relying on these indices as measures of accuracy. To do so, this research will examine how these results change across six crime categories (Commercial Burglary, Homicide, Residential Burglary, Street Crime, Theft from Auto, and Theft of Auto), across six time frames (two weeks, one month, two months, three months, six months, and one year), in several types of geographies (Charlotte, NC, Pittsburgh, PA, Hillsborough County, FL and Lincoln, NE). Additionally, this research will attempt to guide researchers into developing a new probability based index to incorporate the pros of these models while resolving many of the cons.

2004 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 291 words || 
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2. Maier, Scott. "Assessing Newspaper Accuracy: Using the Internet to Improve a Classic Survey Technique" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs, Phoenix, Arizona, May 11, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-05-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p115987_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: For more than 60 years, mass communication researchers have relied on self-administered mail surveys to assess newspaper accuracy, asking people cited in news stories whether the information was correctly reported. But most accuracy studies involve a single local news market and the cooperation of the newspaper being examined, making comparison of news accuracy across newspapers and over time difficult if not impossible to assess. Seeking to provide an independent benchmark measure of newspaper accuracy in the United States, this study attempts to use Internet technology to overcome these limitations. Two methodological research questions are posed: (1) Using Internet search tools, is it feasible to generate a database of mail and email addresses for a large sample of news sources cited in news stories across the nation? (2) Will mixed-mode data collection, using mail and web-based surveys, enhance source participation?

Results show that new technology facilitates a cross-market accuracy survey of news sources. Working addresses were found for primary news sources cited in nearly all of the 7,600 newspaper stories in 20 U.S. markets studied. The response rate was 68 percent, indicating that news sources are willing to participate in a long-distance, independent survey. The response rate for the 10 newspapers in the mixed-mode experimental group was 6 percentage points greater than for the all-postal control group. The mixed-mode group also had fewer refusals, undeliverable addresses, and partially completed questionnaires. Respondents using the web questionnaire were significantly younger than those responding by mail, but otherwise differed only slightly in demographic make-up or in their assessment of newspaper accuracy. Mixed-mode data collection had an auxiliary benefit: Pre-notification letters by email provided a low-cost, rapid-response system of list validation, enabling researchers to correct addresses and other information before expensive mail surveys were sent.

2004 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 311 words || 
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3. Agrawal, Sangeeta., Andreski, Patricia. and Belli, Robert. "CATI Event History Calendar and Question-List Methods: Accuracy of Life Course Retrospective Reports" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs, Phoenix, Arizona, May 11, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-05-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p115882_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In comparison to traditional standardized question-list (Q-list) interviews, paper and pencil Event History Calendars (EHCs) have been shown to provide better quality retrospective reports on social and labor histories for a two-year reference period. Because of disadvantages with paper and pencil EHCs, computer-assisted interviewing EHCs have been developed using windows-based software. Participants in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) served as respondents in an experimental comparison between CATI EHC and CATI question-list (Q-list) methods on the quality of life-course retrospective reports. Respondents and interviewers were randomly assigned to conditions, with data collected on 313 EHC (94 percent cooperation rate) and 318 Q-list (97 percent cooperation rate) respondents via telephone. Both computerized EHC and Q-list instruments were equated in collecting data on the same life course histories. Using prospective panel data from the PSID as validation, the correspondence between the life course retrospective reports collected by computerized EHC and Q-list methods and the prospective reports are compared. Data quality outcome measures include the correspondence on the frequency and timing of residential changes, marriages and cohabitations, annual amounts of employment and unemployment, and annual judgments of health status. Although partnering revealed no significant difference between EHC and Q-list conditions, in comparison to the Q-list, the EHC led to significantly greater correspondence in 1) residential changes, 2) the amount of annual work for remote years, and 3) the decreasing slopes associated between health status and aging. Analyses of interviewer assessments revealed that interviewers found levels of burden significantly lower in the EHC interviews for both respondents and themselves. On average, EHC interviews (M = 57.6, s = 28.7) took 6 minutes longer than Q-list ones (M = 51.5, s = 21.9), t(615) = 2.96, p = .003. EHC interviews led to higher quality retrospective reports without having a substantive adverse impact on interviewing time.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5245 words || 
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4. Greenberg, Bradley., Eastin, Matthew., Skalski, Paul., Cooper, Len., Levy, Mark. and Lachlan, Ken. "“E” for Accuracy! Comparing Survey, Diary, and E-tracking Methods of Measuring Internet Use" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-05-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p113054_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Considerable debate exists over the accuracy of self-reported media use measures. This report compares three methods for studying Internet and computer use: online surveys, diaries and e-tracking. This study was conducted with undergraduate students from two universities. Participants were asked to (a) complete a survey (b) keep a diary over the course of one day, and (c) download Internet software which logs all Internet related activity. All methods assessed how frequently they engaged in Web surfing, information seeking, entertainment activities, email sending and receiving, and on and off-line video game playing. Results indicate that e-tracking estimates of Internet use are consistently lower than diary and survey estimates.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5670 words || 
Info
5. Maier, Scott. and Kasoma, Twange. "Information as Good as its Source: Source Diversity and Accuracy at Nine Daily U.S. Newspapers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-05-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p13752_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This news source survey and content analysis of 900 news stories examines source diversity and its relationship to accuracy and credibility at nine U.S. daily newspapers. Journalists identified, on average, 3.3 sources per story, though 40 percent of the stories used two or fewer named sources. On average, 42 percent of a story’s text was without any source attribution. Men outnumbered women 2 to 1 as named sources. A majority of stories relied on government and other official sources, while community members and other "ordinary" people were rarely cited. The data did not support the hypothesis that fewer errors would occur when more sources were used but the news story held greater credibility when more sources were cited. Going beyond examination of front-page news, the study provides a new benchmark in source diversity research by examining all locally produced stories (except sports and commentary) appearing throughout the newspaper.

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