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2017 - The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 138 words || 
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1. Foster, Susan. "Achievement Perceptions, Definitions, and Influences in the Era of the "So-Called Achievement Gap"" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 17, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1238617_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the emergence of the “so-called achievement gap” through an analysis of pedagogical, cultural, psychosocial, political, and economic explanations for achievement patterns in U.S. public schools. Included here is a discussion of how a mismatch between home-school culture and discourse can influence achievement patterns and perceptions. The unintended effects of some cultural explanations for achievement, which came about to counter deficiency discourses, but have potential to reify hierarchical thinking and oversimplified, dichotomous narratives are also discussed. Evidence for the potential effects of modernization on achievement patterns in industrialized nations is addressed as well. Integral to this analysis is a sociological perspective on how contradictory perceptions of equality, the legitimation process, and a changing occupational structure influence achievement patterns and perceptions. The effects of increasing income inequality and economic policies on achievement patterns are also addressed.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 36 words || 
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2. Wong, Kenneth. "Mayors Improving Student Achievement: Evidence from a National Achievement Database" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p136889_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using a database of 104 cities and school districts, covering 40 states and over 70,000 schools, we find that in the time period 1999-2003, mayoral appointed school boards are positively related to elementary school student achievement.

2016 - UCEA Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Ramirez, Dean. "A Paradox of High-Achievement: Implementing Race to the Top (RTTT) policies in a high-achieving school district" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the UCEA Annual Convention, Detroit Marriott Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan, Nov 17, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1161228_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Threat-Rigidity Hypothesis suggests that when faced with a threat, organizations may close down, reduce information flow, engage in poor decision making, and limit divergent views (Staw et al., 1983; Daly, 2009). This mixed-method study evaluated Trust, Leadership, and Threat-Rigidity facets in a historically high-achieving school district during a time of change. The results of this study suggest that administrators need to understand the culture and climate of a school district when implementing federal/state policies.

2007 - American Sociological Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 3264 words || 
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4. Harpalani, Vinay. "Racial Stereotypes and Achievement-linked Identity Formation during Adolescence: Counterstereotypic Identity Among High-Achieving Black Students" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p183376_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examined how racial stereotypes affect achievement and identity formation among low income, urban Black adolescents. Specifically, the major question addressed was: how do high-achieving Black students succeed academically despite negative stereotypes of their intellectual abilities? Spencer's (1995) Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST), which highlights the linkages between coping strategies and identity, was the major theoretical framework employed. Results indicate that high-achieving Black youth, compared to high achievers of other ethnicities, view intelligence as a more flexible (as opposed to fixed) entity and place greater salience on intellectual abilities. Implications of these data, which are interpreted as "counterstereotypic identity," are also discussed.

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