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2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 13524 words || 
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1. Bauer, Gretchen. "Electoral Systems and Gender Quotas in Southern Africa: What Have They Achieved? What Can They Achieve?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p42462_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract

In 1997 southern African heads of state signed the Southern African Development Community Declaration on Gender and Development, committing themselves and their countries to the achievement of at least 30 percent women in all political and decision making structures by 2005. The achievement of such a critical mass of women in politics, it is argued, is essential to better meeting the needs and interests of women and children and to moving to eradicate gender inequalities. In 2004 and 2005 six Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries – Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe – held national legislative elections. While women activists had pinned their hopes on this set of elections, only two countries, Mozambique and South Africa (with Namibia close behind) met (slightly exceeded) the 30 percent target. The others lagged behind or just met the regional average of 15 percent women in a single or lower house of parliament in Africa. Through a careful reading of these six cases, this paper examines two aspects of the campaign to increase women’s participation and representation in politics and decision making in several SADC countries. First, it investigates the extent to which countries have actually manipulated electoral systems and adopted gender quotas to increase the percentage of women in elected office. Second, it probes the extent to which such institutional mechanisms, when utilized, make a tangible contribution toward achieving gender equality.

2012 - 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 134 words || 
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2. Lansdale, Jeffery. "Using formative assessment data to help teachers and school directors improve student achievement: The Honduras Improving Student Achievement Program (MIDEH)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p553224_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The alignment of content standards, curriculum, instructional practices, and assessment is critical to improving student learning. From 2004 to the present, the Honduras MIDEH project has worked to support the Ministry of Education in Honduras to create content standards and align curriculum pedagogy, and assessment for the purposes of improving student learning. Diagnostic formative and summative assessments have driven the use of data for informed decision-making and created a practical cycle of data collection – analysis – utilization. This presentation will share the key strategies, best practices, and lessons learned about how to create an effective system of standards and assessment that informs decision-making at the local level as well as within the Ministry of Education. The presentation will link these strategies and informed decision-making to improvements in learning outcomes.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 385 words || 
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3. Watts, Tyler., Duncan, Greg., Clements, Douglas., Sarama, Julie., Wolfe, Christopher. and Spitler, Mary Elaine. "Early math skills and later achievement: Which kindergarten common core domains most predict fifth grade math achievement?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958014_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: The era of standards reform in mathematics has recently culminated with the sweeping adoption of the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSM) by over 40 states. However, surprisingly little research has investigated empirically whether the domains of knowledge endorsed by CCSSM predict later mathematics achievement. The current study examined the extent to which the various domain-specific proficiencies in mathematical knowledge promoted by the CCSSM in kindergarten (e.g. counting, operations, measurement, geometry) predict fifth grade mathematics achievement while also accounting for literacy and language skills, personal and family background characteristics, and teacher fixed effects.

Data were drawn from a sample of approximately 1300 children from low-income communities (83% recommended for free or reduced price lunch; 53% Black; 18% Hispanic). Participants were followed from preschool through the fifth grade, and their mathematical knowledge was assessed throughout this period with the Research-based Early Math Assessment (REMA; see Clements, Sarama, & Liu, 2008). The REMA was used to assess students across a wide variety of mathematical topics (e.g. geometry, patterning, calculation) at each grade. We coded the items of the REMA administered in the spring of kindergarten to the domain-specific competencies recommended for kindergarten students in the CCSSM. The current analysis employed OLS regression to relate fifth grade mathematics achievement to knowledge of individual CCSSM competencies in kindergarten. We used the multiple measurements of mathematical knowledge to reduce bias in our coefficients by controlling for knowledge of CCSSM competencies in preschool. This procedure allowed coefficients produced by kindergarten CCSSM measures to be interpreted as gains in each competency across the kindergarten year, and substantially limited sources of omitted variable bias by accounting for any omitted variable that would also have non-zero correlations with preschool mathematical knowledge. Further, because participants were clustered in classrooms, we employed a teacher fixed-effects model, which accounted for possible bias due to between-classroom differences.

Findings indicated that early numeracy competencies, specifically counting and operations, were the strongest predictors of grade 5 mathematics achievement (see Table 1). Geometry knowledge was also predictive, but less so, while measurement and patterning skills were not predictive of subsequent mathematics achievement.

Our results suggest that although students would benefit from knowledge across various domains of mathematics during kindergarten, numerical skills are most foundational to developing later mathematics achievement.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 6657 words || 
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4. Parks, Kathrin. "A Formula for Low Achievement: Using Multi-level Models To Understand Variance in Mathematics Achievement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p22176_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The following study utilizes data from the High School and Beyond Study in order to predict mathematics achievement using both student characteristics and school level characteristics. Utilizing Hierarchical Linear Modeling, this study extends the body of literature by exploring how race, socio-economic status, and gender, as well as the percentage of minority students in a school, whether or not the school is Catholic, the proportion of students in the academic track, and the mean socioeconomic status of the school all affect mathematics achievement. Through this methodology, it was possible to see the direct effects of both student level and school level variables on achievement, as well as the cross-level interaction of all of these variables. Findings suggest that there are discrepancies in how different types of students achieve, as well as how those students achieve in varying contexts. Many of the variables were statistically significant in their effect on mathematics achievement. Implications for this research are discussed and considerations for future research are presented.

2017 - The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 138 words || 
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5. Foster, Susan. "Achievement Perceptions, Definitions, and Influences in the Era of the "So-Called Achievement Gap"" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 17, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-04-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1238617_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the emergence of the “so-called achievement gap” through an analysis of pedagogical, cultural, psychosocial, political, and economic explanations for achievement patterns in U.S. public schools. Included here is a discussion of how a mismatch between home-school culture and discourse can influence achievement patterns and perceptions. The unintended effects of some cultural explanations for achievement, which came about to counter deficiency discourses, but have potential to reify hierarchical thinking and oversimplified, dichotomous narratives are also discussed. Evidence for the potential effects of modernization on achievement patterns in industrialized nations is addressed as well. Integral to this analysis is a sociological perspective on how contradictory perceptions of equality, the legitimation process, and a changing occupational structure influence achievement patterns and perceptions. The effects of increasing income inequality and economic policies on achievement patterns are also addressed.

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