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2015 - ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference Words: 115 words || 
1. Madzimoyo, Ife. "African, Like Me? Gambian Perceptions of African Americans Claiming an “African” or “Pan-African” Identity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: This qualitative, non-experimental study seeks to explore and understand the perceptions of Gambian immigrants in the Atlanta area with respect to African Americans who claim an African or Pan-African identity. The study is mainly concerned with how participants perceive: 1) those African Americans (the people themselves) who claim a Pan/African identity, 2) the actual act of African Americans choosing to claim a Pan/African identity, and 3) African Americans’ expression/demonstration of a Pan/African identity/culture. The study will utilize 3-4 focus group sessions with a sample of 18-36 first and second-generation Gambian immigrants residing in the Atlanta area. Focus group audio transcripts will be analyzed and coded by identifying themes and patterns relevant to the research question.

2009 - 94th Annual Convention Words: 213 words || 
2. Bolarinwa, Sheryl. "African Times and Orient Review: African Diaspora and Pan-Africanism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 94th Annual Convention, Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza, Cincinnati, Ohio, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: During the early twentieth century, Duse Mohammed Ali launched the African Times and Orient Review. It was a monthly journal published in London, England from 1912 to 1918. The newspaper played a significant role in helping to transmit news throughout the Afro-Asian community. The intent of this paper is to show the importance of the newspaper in the African Diaspora and Pan-African movement. There are frequent references to the newspaper in many books and articles, but there has not been a full length study of the newspaper. One historian, Ian Duffield, did an in depth study of the Duse Mohammed's life and business ventures. Duffield's work provides important biographical information on Duse Mohammed, but very little on the substance of the newspaper. This paper will focus on the contents of the African Times and Orient Review. The paper will take the following approach: It will begin with a brief review of the editor's background and the purpose of the newspaper. It will be followed with an overview of articles and advertisements in the newspaper, its readership, and the identity of contributors. It will conclude with how the newspaper was accessed and how it attempted to shape decolonization and the Pan-African movement.

2009 - 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 200 words || 
3. Okpalaoka, Chinwe. "Mutual stereotyping between Africans and African-Americans: Impact on African immigrant girls' ethnic identities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Francis Marion Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina, Mar 22, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Early adolescence is when many physical, biological and psychological changes occur. At this critical time adolescents begin to question their identity and their place in the world (Erikson, 1963; Tatum, 1997). Tatum (1997) argues that “for Black youth, asking ‘Who am I?’ includes thinking about “Who am I ethnically and/or racially’” (p. 53)? For West African immigrant adolescent girls, the question of who they are ethnically and racially is further complicated by the fact that they are also trying to find their place in American society where some people may assume that they are African-American and identify as such, without taking into consideration the role that their West African immigrant backgrounds play in their ethnic identity formation.
This study set out to examine how home and school experiences shape the ethnic identities of young immigrant girls and what their stories might teach us about their educational and socio-cultural needs. An analysis of the data generated through focus group and personal interview transcripts, field notes, participant and researcher journals revealed one theme that consistently appeared throughout the data: the girls’ experiences with African-American stereotypes of Africans versus the girls’ stereotypes of African-Americans and the impact on participants’ choice of ethnic identity

2015 - National Council for Black Studies (NCBS) 39TH Annual Conference Words: 307 words || 
4. Radney, El-Ra. "Pan – African Scripting: African American Language and the Struggle against the Colonization of African Memory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council for Black Studies (NCBS) 39TH Annual Conference, The Westin Los Angeles Airport Hotel, Los Angeles, California, Mar 11, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Individual Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Langston Hughes’ poem “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” (1967) clearly exhibits an African consciousness. The symbols and the ethos invoked locate Pan-Africanist scripting in AAL. The remembrance of Africa has dominated Black speech/ Black language/Black rhetoric and Black writing.
The speaker connects the soul, struggles and heritage of Africana peoples to four great rivers in the ‘Middle East’, Africa and America. In this way the poem charts the journey of African American, Continental Africans, and African Diaspora peoples, and links these communities to their triple heritage in a Pan-Africanist soul-force. Hughes’ poem comprises a less-complicated object of study for the prospects of this paper on Pan-African scripting. The larger ambition would be fulfilled in examining how the distinctive language forms/styles of AAL outlined by celebrated linguist Geneva Smitherman (‘Dr. G’), Denise Troutman, etc. such as ‘signifyin’ and ‘loud talking’ matchup with Pan-African revivalism in Black American language and its expressive arts.
In this light, this paper will extract Nyamnjoh’s and Shoro’s (2009) model of Pan-African scripting and apply it to African American language (AAL). Nyamnjoh’s and Shoro observations deal closely with continental African writers, language and mobility.
This study deviates and expands upon their notion by first looking at African American language, writers, spoken word and hip-hop, and then by adding the prospect of ‘linguistic resistance’ to this body of knowledge production. Linguistic resistance is sited by Nyamnjoh and Shoro, (2009) in the text of Amos Tutuola’s the Palm Wine Drinkard.
Linguistic resistance is illuminated by what Toyin Falola (2013) describes as the colonization of memory, and the colonization of spaces. In the early days of Ebonics development, Twiggs (1973) first approaches the notion of linguistic resistance as “functional interference” and African slave rebellion, where enslaved Africans in the Western Hemisphere refused to “speak the white man’s language, as the white man desired”, and as result Africanized it (55-56).

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