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2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 12211 words || 
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1. Lee, Geunwook. "Taking Alliances Seriously: Alliances as International Institution and Alliance Cooperation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65582_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: I address the issue of alliances cooperation: the specific puzzle is what determines the level of alliance cooperation. I argue that allies honor their alliance when their alliance relationship is institutionalized to generate military interdependence. In contrast with realist theories, I suggest that the alliance institutionalization, not offense-defense balance or threat, determines alliance cooperation.
To test my argument, I will control the level of threat by generating a selection bias intentionally in a following way. The value of the dependent variable, the level of alliance cooperation, is observed in times of non-peaceful and dangerous contingencies whose level of threat is high. In addition to control the level of threat, the relationship between the level of threat and the level of alliance institutionalization is also explored in order to measure the true effect of it.

2003 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 14492 words || 
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2. Izumikawa, Yasuhiro. "Power of Rewards in Alliance Formation: The Rise of the Sino-Soviet Alliance" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p63177_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 448 words || 
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3. Kim, Hyun-Wook. "Critical Junctures and Alliance Cohesion: The Post-Cold War US-Japan and US-South Korea Alliances" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178994_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How can we account for various changes in military alliances after the Cold War? Why do some purposeless alliances persist after the Cold War, while others perish? Which theoretical approaches best explain the disorderly outcome of military alliances after the Cold War? In order to answer these questions, I situate my research in the Northeast Asian area, where there are two military alliances that have made puzzling moves after the Cold War: the US-Japan and the US-South Korea alliances.The US-Japan and the US-South Korea alliances have been two security pillars in Northeast Asia against the communist bloc during the Cold War period. As the Soviet demise occurred in 1991, the realists predicted that these two alliances would change in accordance with the post-Cold War discourse: the US-Japan alliance would not maintain as strong as during the Cold War period, and with the disintegration of communism as an ideology and the Soviet Union as a state, no purpose would motivate American policy in this region any more; the US-South Korea alliance would remain as strong as ever due to the threats of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction posed by North Korea. However, for the past decade and a half, these projections did not come to pass: rather, they changed inversely. The US-Japan alliance has become very cohesive and stronger than ever, while the US-South Korea alliance has undergone difficulties after the Cold War.How do we account for these puzzles? That is, how do we account for the weakening of the US-South Korea alliance and the strengthening of the US-Japan alliance after the Cold War?In explaining these counter-intuitive developments, I employ the critical juncture approach. I argue that in South Korea and Japan, certain critical events readjusted domestic security cultures so that they became more pronounced, and this ultimately affected their alliance policies towards the United States. In the case of South Korea, the democratic transition in the late 1980s and the reactive government policies thereof may be seen as the first critical juncture. The second one manifested in the North-South Korea Summit Meeting in 2000. With these critical junctures, a more liberal, nationalist, and anti-American culture has developed in South Korea, which has holistically formulated the cohesion level of the US-South Korea alliance. In Japan, the Persian Gulf War was the first critical juncture, after which the cultural movement towards a normal state began to arise. The second one involved the North Korean Taepodong missile shock in 1998, which has changed the security perception of the Japanese people. These critical junctures have reshaped the security culture in Japan to a more conservative, militarist, and normalcy-oriented one, and it has affected the cohesion level of the US-Japan alliance.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 18 pages || Words: 3908 words || 
Info
4. Leben, Wendy. "The Reliance on Alliance: How Terrorists Use Wedge Strategies to Exploit Multilateral Anti-Terrorist Alliances" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p280817_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: No matter what level of military power a nation possesses, wedge strategy is one method all countries can utilize to break apart enemy alliances. If applying wedge strategy means that these groups are no longer categorically separated from their militarily-superior rival nations, is this thus another asymmetric strategy that terrorists can use? Approaching wedge strategy as an independent tool of analysis, this paper expands on the traditional use in state-to-state interactions and analyzes how wedge strategies are used by terrorists to achieve their goals.

This includes two interrelated facets of discussion. The first topic regards using wedges against states in the anti-terror alliance. The War on Terror requires multilateral support, and when this support is fractured the War on Terror will fail. This paper addresses how and why alliances in the war on terror are more important than traditional alliances in conventional wars, and how terrorists exploit this reliance, as seen in the splintering of the coalition that invaded Iraq in 2003.

The second topic is the use of internal wedges in a foreign country's domestic politics for the purpose of achieving wider goals. For example, consider Al Qaeda's attacks in Madrid in 2004. These singular attacks drove a wedge between the people and the government, which in a democratic state like Spain resulted in new leadership, which pulled troops out of Iraq. Al Qaeda thus achieved its goal of one less enemy in the Iraq War.

Is wedge strategy a conventional method that can be used by terrorists in non-conventional warfare? Does wedge strategy thereby merge the gap between realist theory and the applicability of non-state actors to system-level politics? This paper uses case studies to support the argument that terrorists are applying wedge strategy in ways previously seen only in state-to-state interactions. Emphasis is given to less-studied topics like using wedges in another state's internal politics. The conclusion will focus on what this means for strategic military planning in anti-terrorism operations.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 9303 words || 
Info
5. Kimball, Anessa. "Alliances from the Inside Out: A Theory of Domestic Politics and Alliance Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40822_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Existing work cannot explain why countries form or maintain alliances absent security threats, though we know countries routinely do just these things. I argue countries form alliances to manage the essential problem that they must use finite budget resources to provide domestic security and national security; the guns versus butter dilemma. States sometimes form alliances to “contract out” national security so they can allocate more resources to domestic concerns. Not only should we expect alliances to form and endure absent threats, but also we should expect more generally that domestic political and economic demands will influence alliance decisions. I examine my theory on sample of all country dyad-years from 1816-2000 using a probit model.

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