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2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 4 pages || Words: 1743 words || 
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1. Pierik, Roland. "Should western governments allow their pharmaceutical corporations to relocate medicine tests to resource-poor countries?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p209864_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: One of the more recent trends in globalization is the increase of medicine testing abroad. Western pharmaceutical companies relocate risky medicine tests to resource-poor countries. Most of us will have the intuition that this relocation is not unproblematic, without immediately knowing what is wrong or why. I argue that ipso facto relocating medicine tests to developing countries is not intrinsically wrong; even more, it can even have beneficial effects for resource-poor countries. The problem, however, is the difficulty of distinguishing beneficial and harmful (or even exploitative) forms of medicine testing. The aim of the paper is to map the institutional context in which this practice of relocating medicine tests abroad has emerged and discussing the role of western governments in regulating this practice. The argument proceeds in three steps. I start by discussing the various reasons why it is attractive for western pharmaceutical companies to relocate these medicine tests, and distinguish these reasons in ethically-neutral and ethically-problematic ones. Secondly, I present a preliminary formulation of principle of justice determining a fair distribution of burdens and benefits of border-crossing medicine tests. Finally, I show how this principle of justice for border-crossing medicine tests and the separation between ethically-neutral and ethically-problematic reasons for relocating medicine tests can be useful in determining western policies towards the relocation of medicine tests of western pharmaceuticals to resource-poor countries.

The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 provides a general background for the discussion and describes the role of medicine tests in the process of developing new medicines. Section 2 explains how globalization has changed the practice of medicine tests. It gives an overview of the incentives for pharmaceutical companies to relocate their medicine tests to resource-poor countries. Moreover, it shows why globalization has weakened the ability of national governments to regulate the practice. Section 3 discusses the role western regulations can play in the decisions of pharmaceutical companies to relocate medicine tests. I argue that the interests of several groups must be balanced – patients and pharmaceutical companies in western countries and resource-poor countries and their citizens. Moreover, I present a consequentialist argument on how these interests must be balanced. Section 4 discusses a central issue in current political debates – double standards in medical research – are shows how my approach, as developed in section 4, can be helpful in discussing this example. Section 5 concludes.

2005 - The Law and Society Words: 237 words || 
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2. Jehle, Alayna. and Miller, Monica K.. "Controversy in the Courtroom: Implications of Allowing Jurors to Question Witnesses" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society, J.W. Marriott Resort, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p17505_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper focuses on the controversial jury innovation of allowing jurors to ask witnesses questions during trial. The paper begins by discussing the psychological Story Model of juror decision-making, which suggests that jurors construct stories to comprehend evidence, which allow the jurors to reach a decision prior to deliberations. The research demonstrates the need for jury innovations involving jurors actively participating in the trial. Then, the authors give an overview of juror questioning, which includes the purpose of jurors asking questions, common procedures implemented when allowing the practice, and cautionary instructions to the jurors regarding the practice. The authors examine why some judges hesitate to allow this innovation when other innovations with fewer perceived drawbacks are available. Next, the paper examines the benefits and criticisms that have been supported through empirical studies, as well as the apparent misconceptions among the supporters and critics. The authors then discuss recent state and federal court decisions that either support or discourage the practice. Next, the paper discusses suggested standards regarding cautionary instructions and procedures for implementing juror questioning, as well as which standards should be encouraged or discouraged. The authors conclude that courts should uniformly adopt the practice of allowing jurors to ask questions. Since there are few adverse effects of allowing jurors to ask questions, the practice should be implemented to aid jurors in performing their role as fact-finders.

2008 - The Law and Society Association Words: 236 words || 
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3. Gewertz, Nevin. "A Race Based Solution to Organ Supply: Why Allowing Donors to Select the Race of Their Recipients May Help Meet Demand" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Bonaventure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 27, 2008 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p240765_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: African American’s mistrust the current organ procurement and allocations system and, perhaps, for good reason. The scientific rationales determining priority on organ waitlists are outdated due to the efficacy and prevalence of immunosuppressant drugs. The distributional consequences are socially unjust—Blacks are subject to higher mortality rates and waiting times than their White counterparts. Indirectly, this may impact the supply of available organs. Blacks are under-represented in organ procurement despite the fact that, as a group, they are historically more charitable than their peers. This paper proposes a policy solution that shifts control over organ allocation to organ donors themselves by allowing donors to select the race of their potential recipients. Increased donor control may lead to increased organ supply. Individuals donate money to organizations of their choice without bureaucratic interference or consideration, and often do so along race or religious lines. Scientific development now forces us to ask why the same cannot hold true for altruistic organ donation. Historical concerns with the use of race as a decision-making criterion focus on animus and hurtful intent. But, recent Court opinions regarding school segregation suggest a different social climate at present: one conducive to race based solutions. In a post-affirmative action society, is color blind organ allocation necessary? The social repercussions may suggest so. But perhaps, given what is at stake, the costs of human lives should compel us to stop looking past race as a potential solution.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 204 words || 
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4. Schwartz, Jennifer. and Conover-Williams, Meredith. "No Girls Allowed? Changes in the Sex Composition of Crime Partnerships and Groups, 1976-2007" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 16, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p432045_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: For as long as sex-specific crime patterns have been tracked, there has been a striking gap in women’s involvement in serious and violent crime, especially in crime groups. Although the gap partially results from gender socialization, structurally, institutionalized sexism in the criminal underworld has limited and shaped female involvement in crime groups, including partnerships. Because of underworld sex segregation, more organized crime groups have been less likely to include women. Simultaneously, there is debate about whether women are more violent or playing more equal roles in violence than in the past. Change in crime groups and partnerships toward the greater inclusion of women would signal a shift in the nature of female offending. In this study, we depict and analyze co-offending trend patterns that reflect how gender stratification plays out in the underworld, giving insight into how co-offending dynamics have shifted over time. To assess changes in the sex composition of crime groups, we utilize official data from 1976 to 2007 for the most reliably measured offense, homicide, and advanced time series methods. Our findings indicate that crime partnerships and groups remain highly sex-stratified. However, there are notable changes in co-offending patterns that occurred during the 1990s crime decline.

2013 - National Women's Studies Association Words: 106 words || 
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5. Musial, Jennifer. "“No Civilized Society Should Allow This”: American Nation-Building, Reproductive Citizenship, and Anti-Abortion Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Women's Studies Association, Cincinnati Netherland Plaza, Cincinnati, OH, <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p661407_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: In 2011, Arizona passed the “Susan B. Anthony and Frederick Douglass Prenatal Nondiscrimination Act”, which criminalizes race or sex selective abortion. Proponents argued that America will not tolerate discrimination against fetuses of colour or female fetuses. In doing so, Arizona lawmakers constructed African American, Asian American, and Asian immigrant reproductive practices as anti-American. While “upholding” fetal American civil rights, the same Arizona lawmakers passed bills that criminalize im/migrants and prohibit Mexican-American/Raza Studies in Tucson schools. I explore the relationship between nationalist discourses of equality and state practices of racism; I show that reproducing bodies are central to repressive practices in the Borderlands.

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