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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
1. Elmore, Alexis., Nigg, Joel., Friderici, Karen., Jernigan, Katherine. and Nikolas, Molly. "5HTTLPR Genotype Moderates Links Among Family Functioning and Child Temperament Among Youth with ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Introduction. Families of youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience disruptive family dynamics (Nigg et al., 2006), which may further amplify genetic risk for the disorder (Nigg, Nikolas, & Burt, 2010). Evidence supports a role of serotonergic functioning in response to environmental stressors (Bennett et al., 2002) indexed by a 44 base-pair restriction-fragment length polymorphism in promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Previous work has found evidence of GxE effects and familial and inter-parental conflict linking both low and high-functioning 5HTTLPR genotypes to ADHD (Elmore et al., in review; Nikolas et al., 2010), despite meta-analytic evidence of a small, but significant association between ADHD and high-functioning genotypes (Gizer, Ficks, & Waldman, 2009). Difficult child temperament may set the stage for ADHD (Nigg, Goldsmith, & Sachek, 2004), such that development of reactive control and resiliency may offer a mechanism through which serotonergic dysregulation and family functioning interact to give rise to ADHD (Martel et al., 2010). We examined gene x environment interaction effects (GxE) to investigate interplay among biological disposition (serotonergic dysfunction) and child experience (family environment) in creating risk for ADHD via their influence on child temperament traits.

Method. Subjects were 498 youth from local clinics and surrounding community (M age=10.8, SD=2.3, range 6-17 years, 55% male). All youth underwent a multi-stage, multi-informant diagnostic procedure (final sample: 251 ADHD, 213 non-ADHD youth). Family functioning was assessed with child and parent report on the Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 2007). Temperament was assessed via parent report on the California Child Q-sort (Caspi et al., 1992). Linear regression analyses examined interactions between 5HTTLPR genotype and family functioning (conflict, cohesion) in predicting child temperament (resiliency, reactive control). All analyses covaried sex, age, and ethnicity.

Results. 5HTTLPR genotype and conflict significantly interacted in predicting resiliency (β=.088, p=.042). Family conflict predicted resiliency for youth with high functioning (β=-.173, p=.050), but not for those with intermediate (β=.037, p=.606) or low functioning (β=.097, p=.328) 5HTTLPR genotypes. For youth with high functioning genotypes, increased family conflict was associated with decreased resiliency (Figure 1). Additionally, 5HTTLPR genotype and cohesion significantly interacted in predicting reactive control (β=.102, p=.011). Family cohesion positively related to reactive control for youth with low functioning (β = .248, p=.005) but not intermediate (β=-.082, p=.247) or high functioning genotypes (β=-.089, p=.300). For youth with low functioning genotypes, higher family cohesion was associated with increased reactive control (Figure 2).

Discussion. Findings indicated that youth with high functioning genotypes exhibited decreased resiliency in conflictual family environments, whereas youth with low functioning genotypes showed increased reactive control in cohesive family environments. This is consistent with previous work suggesting that both high and low functioning genotypes confer environmental susceptibility (Nikolas et al., 2010) and with evidence indicating that familial functioning difficulties may worsen behavioral, emotional, and cognitive regulation deficits (Nigg, Hinshaw, & Huang-Pollock, 2006). Current results may help explain discrepant findings regarding the role of 5HTTLPR in ADHD, suggesting that the relevance of functionality for outcomes associated with specific genotypes may differ according to environmental context.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 138 words || 
2. Horowitz, Michael. and Potter, Philip. "Honor Among Thieves: Understanding Cooperation Among Violent Non-State Actors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: From Hezbollah's interactions with al Qaeda in the 1990s to Boko Harem's statement of allegiance to ISIS in early 2015, it is clear that militant groups think strategically about who to cooperate with and how to benefit from these relationships. This is a critical topic for scholars of international politics, connecting to both the long and deep literature on alliances between nation-states, as well as initial research conducted over the last decade on the networks of relationships among violent non-state actors. This paper presents initial results from a new, cross-national dataset of conflict and cooperation between militant groups around the world from 1970-2014. We explore the drivers of alliances between militant groups as well as the content of that cooperation, which can range from relatively meaningless statements of support to financing, weapons transfers, training and even joint operations.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 190 words || 
3. Sweet, Timothy., Manzo, Amber. and Sperber, Kimberly. "Examining Relationships among Past Traumatic Experiences, Current Opioid Use, and Criminogenic Risk among a Sample of Community Corrections Clients." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Elevated rates of interpersonal trauma have been documented in both males and females involved in the justice system. Some prior research shows that exposure to trauma is associated with criminogenic risk, lower treatment retention, and a greater risk for poor health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, PTSD, substance abuse, personality disorders and suicide. Consequently, the aim of the current study is to examine the relationship that a correctional client’s past traumatic history has with present criminogenic risk, substance use, and general health. Additionally, the study will examine differences between subgroups of opioid users identified as: heroin use only, painkiller use only, combined use of painkillers and heroin, and any opioid used in conjunction with a non-opioid. These aims were addressed using a sample of 400 individuals residing in four local halfway houses. Participants were asked to fill out a battery of assessments on traumatic event history, current PTSD symptomology, substance use, and present health and wellness. Results of the surveys will be analyzed to determine the nature and strength of the relationship between past traumatic experiences, current opioid use and criminogenic risk. Practical implications of the findings will be discussed.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 315 words || 
4. Risner, Hagan. "Associations among job satisfaction, paternal depression, and parenting among low-income fathers of toddlers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research demonstrates that job satisfaction among low-income fathers has devastating results for parenting outcomes (Cabrera et al. 2008; Carlson & Magnuson, 2010; Castillo et al., 2013; Landale & Oropesa, 2001; Tach, Mincy, & Edin, 2010). In addition, fathers who experience lower levels of psychological wellbeing tend to adopt less favorable parenting practices toward their children (Grimm-Thomas, 1994; Galambos & Maggs, 1990; Menaghan & Parcel, 1991). However, there remains a paucity of research examining the mediating role of paternal depression on the relationship between fathers’ job satisfaction and fathering outcomes, particularly among low-income families with very young children. Pertinent literature has focused almost exclusively on mothers. Therefore, the current study investigated the impact of paternal job satisfaction on parenting outcomes in the context of demographic, individual, and psychological paternal characteristics among low-income resident and non-resident fathers. Specifically, we hypothesized that paternal depression would mediate an association between job satisfaction and parenting, and we further hypothesized a moderating role of fathers’ residential status. This study analyzed secondary data collected from the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project Fathers’ Sub-study (EHSREP, Love et al, 2005). Results indicated that greater paternal job satisfaction predicted greater positive parenting practices in fathers (β = .055, p = .008). Moreover, this relationship was significantly mediated by paternal symptoms of depression, such that greater job satisfaction predicted fewer symptoms of depression, which then promoted greater positive parenting practices in fathers (β = .x, p = .009). In addition, fathers’ residential status moderated this mediated relationship; these results were significant for fathers who resided with their children (β = -.041, p = .039) but non-significant for fathers who did not reside with their children (β = .018, p = .446). Identifying factors – that influence low-income fathers’ parenting practices with their young children – could provide greater insight into fathers’ current needs, allowing policy makers to implement appropriate interventions for such populations.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 358 words || 
5. Lincoln, Alisa., Cardeli, Emma., Issa, Osob. and Ellis, Heidi. "Exploring the Relationships Among Discrimination and Mental Health Among Somali Young Adults" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Refugee and immigrant groups in the United States are currently experiencing significant discrimination and victimization. As black, Muslim refugees and immigrants, Somali young adults face “triple marginalization” in that they are discriminated against for reasons of race, religion, and migration status. While there is growing evidence on the adverse effects of discrimination on health, less is known about the ways in which discriminatory experiences relate to refugee mental health , and about how refugees themselves understand and make meaning of those experiences. We present analyses drawn from a larger mixed-methods, community based participatory research program, which brings together a team of inter-disciplinary researchers and leaders from the Somali community to assess risk and resilience factors related to refugee resettlement.

Method: We conducted both quantitative and qualitative analyses to inform our understanding of the relationships among discrimination and health in our sample. Quantitative analyses include data gathered at baseline as part of a longitudinal study with 542 Somali young adults in four North American cities. Discrimination measures include the Everyday Discrimination scale (Williams, Yu, Jackson, & Anderson, 1997). Outcomes of depression, PTSD and anxiety were also examined. In addition, 40 qualitative interviews were conducted with a subsample of participants. Themes related to discrimination and poor treatment were identified and analyzed.
Findings: Quantitative analyses suggest that experiences of discrimination among Somali young adults are nearly ubiquitous (91.3%). Indeed, qualitative results demonstrate that these youth experience high levels of discrimination from multiple sources and across institutional sectors. As one participant noted, “But when you go outside, that’s when the racism hits you. Boom. You get slapped right in the face.” Correlational analyses revealed that discrimination experiences are moderately related to symptoms of anxiety and depression, rpb = .29, p < .001. Regression analyses further examining the relationships between discrimination and various mental health outcomes will also be presented.
Implications: The broad goal of this project is to expand our knowledge of the relationships among experiences of discrimination and health outcomes for Somali young adults. Findings will contribute to the development of strategies to disrupt these associations, mitigate disparities, and foster community inclusion and participation for refugee/immigrant groups.

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